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Digital photography

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Digital photography is a modern technology[2] that captures images through an electronic photodetector, which is then converted into a digital file by an analog-to-digital converter. This process eliminates the need for chemical processing, traditionally used in film photography. The digital image can be stored, viewed, edited, and shared electronically. Key developments in digital photography include the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1969, the introduction of the JPEG[3] image standard in 1992, and the incorporation of digital cameras into mobile phones around 2000. The quality of a digital photo is often determined by factors such as pixel count and sensor size. Digital photography has revolutionized the photography industry, enabling faster workflow, better image quality, and easier sharing of images via social media[1] and other digital platforms.

Terms definitions
1. social media. Social media is a broad term encompassing a variety of digital tools and platforms that facilitate the sharing of information and the creation of virtual communities. Emerging from early systems like PLATO and ARPANET, it has evolved into modern platforms like Facebook and Twitter. These platforms offer unique features that differentiate them from traditional media, including the ability for users to generate content and engage in dialogic communication. They cater to over 100 million users globally and offer different forms of services, such as messaging apps and collaborative content creation platforms. The use of social media has far-reaching impacts on individuals, society, and businesses, influencing everything from marketing practices to political processes. However, it's also associated with ethical concerns, such as the spread of misinformation and potential addiction.
2. technology. Technology, derived from the Greek words meaning craft and knowledge, is a broad term that refers to the tools, machines, and systems developed by humans to solve problems or fulfill objectives. Originating with primitive tools like stone axes and the discovery of fire, technology has evolved significantly throughout human history. It has been instrumental in different eras, from the invention of the wheel and advanced irrigation systems in ancient civilizations to the birth of universities and printing press during the medieval and Renaissance periods. The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century marked a significant shift in mass production and innovation, giving rise to modern technologies like electricity, automobiles, and digital communication platforms. Today, technology is integral to various aspects of life and society, driving economic growth and societal change, while also raising concerns about security, privacy, and environmental impacts. The future of technology is expected to bring even more advancements, with the rise of artificial intelligence predicted to have significant implications for the job market.

Digital photography uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors interfaced to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to produce images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. The digitized image is stored as a computer file ready for further digital processing, viewing, electronic publishing, or digital printing. It is a form of digital imaging based on gathering visible light (or for scientific instruments, light in various ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum).

The Mars Orbiter Camera selected by NASA in 1986 (costing US$44 million) contains a 32-bit radiation-hardened 10 MHz processor and 12 MB of DRAM, then considered state of the art.
Nikon D700 — a 12.1-megapixel full-frame DSLR
Canon PowerShot A95

Until the advent of such technology, photographs were made by exposing light-sensitive photographic film and paper, which was processed in liquid chemical solutions to develop and stabilize the image. Digital photographs are typically created solely by computer-based photoelectric and mechanical techniques, without wet bath chemical processing.

In consumer markets, apart from enthusiast digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), most digital cameras now come with an electronic viewfinder, which approximates the final photograph in real-time. This enables the user to review, adjust, or delete a captured photograph within seconds, making this a form of instant photography, in contrast to most photochemical cameras from the preceding era.

Moreover, the onboard computational resources can usually perform aperture adjustment and focus adjustment (via inbuilt servomotors) as well as set the exposure level automatically, so these technical burdens are removed from the photographer unless the photographer feels competent to intercede (and the camera offers traditional controls). Electronic by nature, most digital cameras are instant, mechanized, and automatic in some or all functions. Digital cameras may choose to emulate traditional manual controls (rings, dials, sprung levers, and buttons) or it may instead provide a touchscreen interface for all functions; most camera phones fall into the latter category.

Digital photography spans a wide range of applications with a long history. Much of the technology originated in the space industry, where it pertains to highly customized, embedded systems combined with sophisticated remote telemetry. Any electronic image sensor can be digitized; this was achieved in 1951. The modern era in digital photography is dominated by the semiconductor industry, which evolved later. An early semiconductor milestone was the advent of the charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor, first demonstrated in April 1970; since then, the field has advanced rapidly, with concurrent advances in photolithographic fabrication.

The first consumer digital cameras were marketed in the late 1990s. Professionals gravitated to digital slowly, converting as their professional work required using digital files to fulfill demands for faster turnaround than conventional methods could allow. Starting around 2000, digital cameras were incorporated into cell phones; in the following years, cell phone cameras became widespread, particularly due to their connectivity to social media and email. Since 2010, the digital point-and-shoot and DSLR cameras have also seen competition from the mirrorless digital cameras, which typically provide better image quality than point-and-shoot or cell phone cameras but are smaller in size and shape than typical DSLRs. Many mirrorless cameras accept interchangeable lenses and have advanced features through an electronic viewfinder, which replaces the through-the-lens viewfinder of single-lens reflex cameras.

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