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Disinformation

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Disinformation is a complex concept with roots tracing back to the Proto-Indo-European language family. It refers to the intentional spreading of false or misleading information, often for political or social influence[1]. This phenomenon became widespread in the 1980s and has been a subject of extensive research to understand its origins, methods, and impacts. Disinformation is often used in deception[3] campaigns on social media[2] and is distinct from misinformation and malinformation. It’s common in political arenas, where it can confuse citizens and discourage their engagement. Disinformation has global implications, being used by governments, NGOs, and businesses worldwide. It can undermine election security[4] and create societal divisions. Various countermeasures have been initiated by organizations like NATO and the EU to address this issue. The study of disinformation also extends to ethical considerations and its role in warfare. Despite these efforts, disinformation remains a challenging issue due to its widespread prevalence and the difficulty in assessing its true impact.

Terms definitions
1. social influence. Social influence refers to the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by others. This concept encompasses a variety of types, such as Kelman's compliance, identification, and internalization, which refer to different levels of individual acceptance of social influence. It also includes phenomena like conformity, minority influence, self-fulfilling prophecy, and social contagion, each with its unique dynamics and implications.However, social influence can also take on negative forms, such as psychological manipulation, abusive power, propaganda, and hard power. These forms often involve the exploitation or coercion of individuals.Various factors can impact the extent and nature of social influence, including antecedents like social impact theory and Cialdini's Weapons of Influence, as well as social structures like unanimity and status. Cultural and emotional influences also play a significant role, shaping conformity and behavior within social structures.Research in this field explores topics such as the influence of social networks, cognitive limits on information transmission, challenges in social media analysis, and the pursuit of a causal understanding in social influence.
2. social media. Social media is a broad term encompassing a variety of digital tools and platforms that facilitate the sharing of information and the creation of virtual communities. Emerging from early systems like PLATO and ARPANET, it has evolved into modern platforms like Facebook and Twitter. These platforms offer unique features that differentiate them from traditional media, including the ability for users to generate content and engage in dialogic communication. They cater to over 100 million users globally and offer different forms of services, such as messaging apps and collaborative content creation platforms. The use of social media has far-reaching impacts on individuals, society, and businesses, influencing everything from marketing practices to political processes. However, it's also associated with ethical concerns, such as the spread of misinformation and potential addiction.
Disinformation (Wikipedia)

Disinformation is false information deliberately spread to deceive people. Disinformation is an orchestrated adversarial activity in which actors employ strategic deceptions and media manipulation tactics to advance political, military, or commercial goals. Disinformation is implemented through attacks that "weaponize multiple rhetorical strategies and forms of knowing—including not only falsehoods but also truths, half-truths, and value judgements—to exploit and amplify culture wars and other identity-driven controversies."

In contrast, misinformation refers to inaccuracies that stem from inadvertent error. Misinformation can be used to create disinformation when known misinformation is purposefully and intentionally disseminated. "Fake news" has sometimes been categorized as a type of disinformation, but scholars have advised not using these two terms interchangeably or using "fake news" altogether in academic writing since politicians have weaponized it to describe any unfavorable news coverage or information.

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