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Graphics processing unit

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A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. The concept of GPU has evolved significantly since the 1970s, beginning with arcade system boards that used specialized graphics circuits. Over time, developments such as the barrel shifter circuit and video shifter have improved the processing of graphics. The 1980s saw the advent of the first personal computer[1] graphics display processor LSI chip, NEC µPD7220, which paved the way for the design of high-performance video graphics cards. GPUs have also been integral to the development of video games, with systems like the Namco Galaxian arcade system and Atari 8-bit computers utilizing specialized graphics hardware. Today, GPUs are an essential component of modern computing, driving advancements in PC graphics, gaming, and more.

Terms definitions
1. computer. A computer is a sophisticated device that manipulates data or information according to a set of instructions, known as programs. By design, computers can perform a wide range of tasks, from simple arithmetic calculations to complex data processing and analysis. They have evolved over the years, starting from primitive counting tools like abacus to modern digital machines. The heart of a computer is its central processing unit (CPU), which includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for performing mathematical operations and registers for storing data. Computers also have memory units, like ROM and RAM, for storing information. Other components include input/output (I/O) devices that allow interaction with the machine and integrated circuits that enhance the computer's functionality. Key historical innovations, like the invention of the first programmable computer by Charles Babbage and the development of the first automatic electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), have greatly contributed to their evolution. Today, computers power the Internet, linking billions of users worldwide and have become an essential tool in almost every industry.

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit initially designed to accelerate computer graphics and image processing (either on a video card or embedded on motherboards, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles). After their initial design, GPUs were found to be useful for non-graphic calculations involving embarrassingly parallel problems due to their parallel structure. Other non-graphical uses include the training of neural networks and cryptocurrency mining.

Components of a GPU
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