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Hacktivism is a term that first surfaced in the mid-90s, coined by Jason Sack and later popularized by Omega, a member of the Cult of the Dead Cow (cDc). This term combines “hacking” and “activism[2],” embodying the use of coding and programming skills to advocate for social change. Its definition varies, with some including cyberterrorism, while others focus on its role as a tool for social change. Hacktivists, who often work anonymously, employ various strategies such as Doxing, DoS attacks, and website[3] defacement. The impact of hacktivism is significant, with the ability to influence political landscapes and affect businesses. Famous examples of hacktivism include networks like Anonymous and WikiLeaks[1], and tools like PGP encryption software. Despite its controversial nature, hacktivism represents a new form of activism in the digital age.

Terms definitions
1. WikiLeaks ( WikiLeaks ) WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organization, established in 2006 by Julian Assange, that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources. Its primary goal is to promote transparency and justice by exposing oppressive regimes and human rights violations worldwide. Over the years, WikiLeaks has released more than 10 million documents, including US military logs, diplomatic cables, and controversial emails related to various political events. However, the organization has faced criticism for its lack of content curation, promotion of conspiracy theories, and alleged associations with the Russian government. It has also faced numerous legal and financial challenges, including a banking blockade by several major corporations. Despite these controversies, WikiLeaks continues to make a significant impact on global politics and journalism.
2. activism. Activism is a broad term that refers to the action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change. It can be categorized into several types, such as human rights, environmental, animal rights, and conservative activism. Each type has its own specific focus but they all share a common goal of effecting change. Activists use various methods to achieve their goals, including nonviolent tactics, political campaigning, internet activism, and economic activism. Additionally, there are specific forms of activism such as consumer, art, science, and shareholder activism. The impact and influence of activism are wide-ranging, from shaping social, political, and economic landscapes to influencing public discourse and corporate practices.
Hacktivism (Wikipedia)

Internet activism, hacktivism, or hactivism (a portmanteau or hack and activism), is the use of computer-based techniques such as hacking as a form of civil disobedience to promote a political agenda or social change. With roots in hacker culture and hacker ethics, its ends are often related to free speech, human rights, or freedom of information movements.

Anarchist hackers

Hacktivist activities span many political ideals and issues. Freenet, a peer-to-peer platform for censorship-resistant communication, is a prime example of translating political thought and freedom of speech into code. Hacking as a form of activism can be carried out through a network of activists, such as Anonymous and WikiLeaks, or through a singular activist, working in collaboration toward common goals without an overarching authority figure.

"Hacktivism" is a controversial term with several meanings. The word was coined to characterize electronic direct action as working toward social change by combining programming skills with critical thinking. But just as hack can sometimes mean cyber crime, hacktivism can be used to mean activism that is malicious, destructive, and undermining the security of the Internet as a technical, economic, and political platform. In comparison to previous forms of social activism, hacktivism has had unprecedented success, bringing in more participants, using more tools, and having more influence in that it has the ability to alter elections, begin conflicts, and take down businesses.

According to the United States 2020-2022 Counterintelligence Strategy, in addition to state adversaries and transnational criminal organizations, "ideologically motivated entities such as hacktivists, leaktivists, and public disclosure organizations, also pose significant threats".

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