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Médias alternatifs

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Alternative media refers to various communication platforms that provide a different perspective from the mainstream. These include press, radio, online channels, street art, and more. It’s a crucial tool for expressing ideas that challenge dominant narratives and offer diverse viewpoints, especially for marginalized groups. This form of media allows audience participation in création de contenu[1] and often critiques mainstream news coverage. It’s essential in highlighting issues such as human rights and environmental concerns. Alternative media also plays a significant role in social movements, enabling them to communicate their viewpoints effectively when mainstream outlets might distort or ignore them. As such, it’s a cornerstone of democratic communication and contributes to public debate.

Définitions des termes
1. création de contenu. La création de contenu fait référence au processus de génération et de partage d'informations, d'idées ou de messages sous différents formats et sur différentes plateformes. Elle implique des individus, des organisations ou des institutions telles que des organes de presse, des universités, des entreprises, des artistes, des écrivains et des gouvernements. Ces entités utilisent différentes méthodes telles que la création d'articles, de rapports, de documents universitaires, d'œuvres culturelles et de données gouvernementales. Les informations sont partagées sur des plateformes telles que les médias sociaux, l'internet et les plateformes numériques comme Twitter, ce qui facilite leur diffusion et leur accessibilité. La création de contenu vise différents objectifs, notamment la diffusion d'informations, le marketing, l'expression artistique et la promotion de la transparence gouvernementale. Elle est influencée par l'évolution de la technologie, les questions éthiques, les lois sur la propriété intellectuelle et les mouvements sociaux. En outre, la création de contenu a un impact significatif sur des secteurs tels que le marketing, les protestations sociales, la recherche universitaire et l'engagement public.

Médias alternatifs are media sources that differ from established or dominant types of media (such as mainstream media ou mass media) in terms of their content, production, or distribution. Sometimes the term independent media is used as a synonym, indicating independence from large media corporations, but generally independent media is used to describe a different meaning around freedom of the press and independence from government control. Alternative media does not refer to a specific format and may be inclusive of print, audio, film/video, online/digital and street art, among others. Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.

In contrast to mainstream mass media, alternative media tend to be "non-commercial projects that advocate the interests of those excluded from the mainstream", for example, the poor, political and ethnic minorities, labor groups, and LGBT identities. These media disseminate marginalized viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, and create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project that was posted on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time of its creation.

Alternative media challenge the dominant beliefs and values of a culture and have been described as "counter-hegemonic" by adherents of Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony; however, since the definition of alternative media as merely counter to the mainstream is limiting, some approaches to the study of alternative media also address the question of how and where these media are created, as well as the dynamic relationship between the media and the participants that create and use them.

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