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Radiodiffusion

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Broadcasting, a key aspect in the realm of communication, has a rich and diverse history. It began with the transmission of telegraph signals over airwaves using Morse code, evolving into wireless communication and commercial radio broadcasting for news and entertainment. Broadcasting methods have advanced over the years, from central high-powered towers transmitting electromagnetic waves to receivers, to the digital age of streaming services. This influential technologie[1] plays an essential role in disseminating information and entertainment, shaping society, culture, and communication. Broadcasting encompasses various methods like radio, television[2]et Internet[3] streaming, and different types of services, such as public, community, and commercial. Technological advances have transformed the industry, with the internet and mobile devices making broadcasting more accessible globally.

Définitions des termes
1. technologie. La technologie, dérivée des mots grecs signifiant artisanat et connaissance, est un terme général qui désigne les outils, les machines et les systèmes mis au point par l'homme pour résoudre des problèmes ou atteindre des objectifs. Née avec des outils primitifs comme les haches de pierre et la découverte du feu, la technologie a évolué de manière significative tout au long de l'histoire de l'humanité. Elle a joué un rôle déterminant à différentes époques, depuis l'invention de la roue et des systèmes d'irrigation avancés dans les civilisations anciennes jusqu'à la naissance des universités et de la presse à imprimer au cours des périodes médiévale et de la Renaissance. La révolution industrielle du XVIIIe siècle a marqué un tournant important dans la production de masse et l'innovation, donnant naissance aux technologies modernes telles que l'électricité, l'automobile et les plates-formes de communication numérique. Aujourd'hui, la technologie fait partie intégrante de divers aspects de la vie et de la société, stimulant la croissance économique et les changements sociétaux, tout en suscitant des préoccupations en matière de sécurité, de respect de la vie privée et d'incidences sur l'environnement. L'avenir de la technologie devrait apporter encore plus de progrès, avec l'essor de l'intelligence artificielle qui devrait avoir des implications significatives sur le marché du travail.
2. television. Television is a technology that transmits visual and audio images. The term comes from Ancient Greek and Latin, meaning 'far sight.' First used in 1900 by Constantin Perskyi, it was known as 'telephote' and 'televista' in early proposals. Television evolved from the mechanical scanning of images, with the Nipkow disk, patented in 1884, playing a crucial role. Initially, TV signals were transmitted through terrestrial broadcasting, but now include coaxial cable, optical fiber, satellite systems, and the internet. Television sets have internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving signals. Without a tuner, it's a video monitor. Color broadcasting was introduced in the mid-1960s, and now, there are smart TVs with internet connectivity. Today, 79% of households worldwide own a television, with major manufacturers producing smart TVs.
Radiodiffusion (Wikipedia)

Radiodiffusion is the distribution ou audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters et receivers. Before this, most implementations of electronic communication (early radio, telephoneet telegraph) were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was later adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898.

A broadcasting antenna in Stuttgart

Over-the-air broadcasting is usually associated with radio et television, though more recently, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable (cable television). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively small subset; the point is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology and equipment (e.g., a radio or television set) can receive the signal. The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio, community radio et public television, and private commercial radio et commercial television. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines broadcasting as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". Private or two-way telecommunications transmissions do not qualify under this definition. For example, amateur ("ham") and citizens band (CB) radio operators are not allowed to broadcast. As defined, transmitting et broadcasting are not the same.

Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as over the air (OTA) or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television (which also retransmits OTA stations with their consent), are also considered broadcasts but do not necessarily require a license (though in some countries, a license is required). In the 2000s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have increasingly been referred to as broadcasting as well.

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