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Sécurité informatique

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Sécurité informatique[1], also known as cybersecurity, is a specialized field that involves safeguarding ordinateur[2] systems, networks, and data from digital attacks. These attacks often aim to access, change, or destroy sensitive information, interrupt normal business processes, or exploit system vulnerabilities for malicious purposes. Cybersecurity threats and attacks come in various forms such as malware[3], phishing, and denial-of-service attacks, among others. To combat these threats, security[4] measures such as access control, firewalls, secure coding, and hardware protection are employed. It’s also critical to continuously update these measures, given the evolving nature of cyber threats. The statistics and trends in this field underscore the importance of maintaining robust computer security to prevent potentially costly and damaging breaches.

Définitions des termes
1. Sécurité informatique ( Computer security )
1 Computer security, also known as cybersecurity, is a specialized field that involves safeguarding computer systems, networks, and data from digital attacks. These attacks often aim to access, change, or destroy sensitive information, interrupt normal business processes, or exploit system vulnerabilities for malicious purposes. Cybersecurity threats and attacks come in various forms such as malware, phishing, and denial-of-service attacks, among others. To combat these threats, security measures such as access control, firewalls, secure coding, and hardware protection are employed. It's also critical to continuously update these measures, given the evolving nature of cyber threats. The statistics and trends in this field underscore the importance of maintaining robust computer security to prevent potentially costly and damaging breaches.
2 Computer security, also known as cybersecurity, is a specialized field that involves safeguarding computer systems, networks, and data from digital attacks. These attacks often aim to access, change, or destroy sensitive information, interrupt normal business processes, or exploit system vulnerabilities for malicious purposes. Cybersecurity threats and attacks come in various forms such as malware, phishing, and denial-of-service attacks, among others. To combat these threats, security measures such as access control, firewalls, secure coding, and hardware protection are employed. It's also critical to continuously update these measures, given the evolving nature of cyber threats. The statistics and trends in this field underscore the importance of maintaining robust computer security to prevent potentially costly and damaging breaches.
2. ordinateur. Un ordinateur est un appareil sophistiqué qui manipule des données ou des informations conformément à un ensemble d'instructions, appelées programmes. De par leur conception, les ordinateurs peuvent effectuer un large éventail de tâches, allant des simples calculs arithmétiques au traitement et à l'analyse de données complexes. Ils ont évolué au fil des ans, depuis les outils de comptage primitifs comme le boulier jusqu'aux machines numériques modernes. Le cœur d'un ordinateur est son unité centrale de traitement (UC), qui comprend une unité arithmétique et logique (UAL) pour effectuer les opérations mathématiques et des registres pour stocker les données. Les ordinateurs disposent également d'unités de mémoire, comme la ROM et la RAM, pour stocker les informations. Les autres composants comprennent des dispositifs d'entrée/sortie (E/S) qui permettent d'interagir avec la machine et des circuits intégrés qui améliorent la fonctionnalité de l'ordinateur. Des innovations historiques majeures, comme l'invention du premier ordinateur programmable par Charles Babbage et le développement du premier ordinateur numérique électronique automatique, l'ordinateur Atanasoff-Berry (ABC), ont grandement contribué à leur évolution. Aujourd'hui, les ordinateurs alimentent l'internet, relient des milliards d'utilisateurs dans le monde entier et sont devenus un outil essentiel dans presque tous les secteurs d'activité.

Sécurité informatique, cybersecurity, digital security ou information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer systems et réseaux from attacks by malicious actors that may result in unauthorized information disclosure, theft of, or damage to hardware, softwareou données, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

An example of physical security measure: a metal lock on the back of a personal computer to prevent illicit component removal or dongle insertion.

The field is significant due to the expanded reliance on computer systems, le Internetet wireless network standards such as Bluetooth et Wi-Fi. It is also significant due to the growth of smart devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things (IoT). Cybersecurity is one of the most significant challenges of the contemporary world, due to both the complexity of information systems and the societies they support. Security is of especially high importance for systems that govern large-scale systems with far-reaching physical effects, such as power distribution, elections, and finance.

While most aspects of computer security involve digital measures such as electronic passwords and encryption, physical security measures such as metal locks are still used to prevent unauthorized tampering.

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