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Photographie numérique

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Digital photography is a modern technologie[2] that captures images through an electronic photodetector, which is then converted into a digital file by an analog-to-digital converter. This process eliminates the need for chemical processing, traditionally used in film photography. The digital image can be stored, viewed, edited, and shared electronically. Key developments in digital photography include the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1969, the introduction of the JPEG[3] image standard in 1992, and the incorporation of digital cameras into mobile phones around 2000. The quality of a digital photo is often determined by factors such as pixel count and sensor size. Digital photography has revolutionized the photography industry, enabling faster workflow, better image quality, and easier sharing of images via médias sociaux[1] and other digital platforms.

Définitions des termes
1. médias sociaux. Les médias sociaux sont un terme général qui englobe une variété d'outils et de plateformes numériques qui facilitent le partage d'informations et la création de communautés virtuelles. Issus des premiers systèmes comme PLATO et ARPANET, ils ont évolué vers des plateformes modernes comme Facebook et Twitter. Ces plateformes offrent des caractéristiques uniques qui les différencient des médias traditionnels, notamment la possibilité pour les utilisateurs de générer du contenu et de s'engager dans une communication dialogique. Elles accueillent plus de 100 millions d'utilisateurs dans le monde et offrent différentes formes de services, telles que des applications de messagerie et des plateformes de création de contenu collaboratif. L'utilisation des médias sociaux a des répercussions considérables sur les individus, la société et les entreprises, influençant tout, des pratiques de marketing aux processus politiques. Cependant, elle est également associée à des préoccupations éthiques, telles que la diffusion de fausses informations et la dépendance potentielle.
2. technologie. La technologie, dérivée des mots grecs signifiant artisanat et connaissance, est un terme général qui désigne les outils, les machines et les systèmes mis au point par l'homme pour résoudre des problèmes ou atteindre des objectifs. Née avec des outils primitifs comme les haches de pierre et la découverte du feu, la technologie a évolué de manière significative tout au long de l'histoire de l'humanité. Elle a joué un rôle déterminant à différentes époques, depuis l'invention de la roue et des systèmes d'irrigation avancés dans les civilisations anciennes jusqu'à la naissance des universités et de la presse à imprimer au cours des périodes médiévale et de la Renaissance. La révolution industrielle du XVIIIe siècle a marqué un tournant important dans la production de masse et l'innovation, donnant naissance aux technologies modernes telles que l'électricité, l'automobile et les plates-formes de communication numérique. Aujourd'hui, la technologie fait partie intégrante de divers aspects de la vie et de la société, stimulant la croissance économique et les changements sociétaux, tout en suscitant des préoccupations en matière de sécurité, de respect de la vie privée et d'incidences sur l'environnement. L'avenir de la technologie devrait apporter encore plus de progrès, avec l'essor de l'intelligence artificielle qui devrait avoir des implications significatives sur le marché du travail.

Photographie numérique uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors interfaced to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to produce images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film. Les digitized image is stored as a fichier informatique ready for further digital processing, viewing, electronic publishingou digital printing. It is a form of digital imaging based on gathering visible light (or for scientific instruments, light in various ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum).

Les Mars Orbiter Camera selected by NASA in 1986 (costing US$44 million) contains a 32-bit radiation-hardened 10 MHz processor and 12 MB of DRAM, then considered state of the art.
Nikon D700 — a 12.1-megapixel full-frame DSLR
Canon PowerShot A95

Until the advent of such technology, photographs were made by exposing light-sensitive photographic film and paper, which was processed in liquid chemical solutions to develop and stabilize the image. Digital photographs are typically created solely by computer-based photoelectric and mechanical techniques, without wet bath chemical processing.

In consumer markets, apart from enthusiast digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), most digital cameras now come with an electronic viewfinder, which approximates the final photograph in real-time. This enables the user to review, adjust, or delete a captured photograph within seconds, making this a form of instant photography, in contrast to most photochemical cameras from the preceding era.

Moreover, the onboard computational resources can usually perform aperture adjustment and focus adjustment (via inbuilt servomotors) as well as set the exposure level automatically, so these technical burdens are removed from the photographer unless the photographer feels competent to intercede (and the camera offers traditional controls). Electronic by nature, most digital cameras are instant, mechanized, and automatic in some or all functions. Digital cameras may choose to emulate traditional manual controls (rings, dials, sprung leverset buttons) or it may instead provide a écran tactile interface for all functions; most camera phones fall into the latter category.

Digital photography spans a wide range of applications with a long history. Much of the technology originated in the space industry, where it pertains to highly customized, embedded systems combined with sophisticated remote telemetry. Any electronic image sensor can be digitized; this was achieved in 1951. The modern era in digital photography is dominated by the semiconductor industry, which evolved later. An early semiconductor milestone was the advent of the charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor, first demonstrated in April 1970; since then, the field has advanced rapidly, with concurrent advances in photolithographic fabrication.

The first consumer digital cameras were marketed in the late 1990s. Professionals gravitated to digital slowly, converting as their professional work required using digital files to fulfill demands for faster turnaround than conventional methods could allow. Starting around 2000, digital cameras were incorporated into cell phones; in the following years, cell phone cameras became widespread, particularly due to their connectivity to médias sociaux et courriel. Since 2010, the digital point-and-shoot and DSLR cameras have also seen competition from the mirrorless digital cameras, which typically provide better image quality than point-and-shoot or cell phone cameras but are smaller in size and shape than typical DSLRs. Many mirrorless cameras accept interchangeable lenses and have advanced features through an electronic viewfinder, which replaces the through-the-lens viewfinder of single-lens reflex cameras.

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