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Protocole de transfert de fichiers

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File Transfer Protocol, often abbreviated as FTP, is a standard network protocol used for transmitting files over the Internet[1]. It was developed by Abhay Bhushan and initially published as RFC114 back in 1971. The protocol establishes a connection between a client and a server, allowing for the transfer of data. It operates in both active and passive modes and corresponds with three-digit status codes. FTP, however, is not inherently secure and has several known vulnerabilities, including susceptibility to brute-force and FTP bounce attacks. Over the years, it has evolved to support IPv6 and extended passive mode. There are also secure alternatives to FTP, such as SFTP and SSH FTP. Users can access FTP servers through various software applications, web browsers, and FTP URLs.

Définitions des termes
1. Internet. L'internet est un système mondial de réseaux informatiques interconnectés qui utilisent des protocoles de communication normalisés, principalement le TCP/IP, pour relier des appareils dans le monde entier. Issu du terme "internetted" utilisé en 1849, le terme "Internet" a ensuite été utilisé par le ministère américain de la guerre en 1945. Son développement a commencé avec des informaticiens qui ont créé des systèmes de partage de temps dans les années 1960 et a progressé avec la création d'ARPANET en 1969. L'internet est autogéré, sans autorité centrale, et ses principaux espaces de noms sont administrés par l'Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Il a considérablement transformé les moyens de communication traditionnels et s'est développé de manière exponentielle au fil des ans, le nombre d'internautes augmentant de 20% à 50% par an. En 2019, plus de la moitié de la population mondiale utilisait l'internet. La suite de protocoles internet, qui comprend le protocole TCP/IP et quatre couches conceptuelles, guide les paquets internet jusqu'à leur destination. Des services essentiels comme le courrier électronique et la téléphonie par internet fonctionnent sur l'internet. Le World Wide Web, une collection mondiale de documents interconnectés, est un élément clé de l'internet.

Les Protocole de transfert de fichiers (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a réseau informatique. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a plain-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).

Protocole de transfert de fichiers
Protocole de communication
PurposeFile transfer
Developer(s)Abhay Bhushan for RFC 114
IntroductionApril 16, 1971; 52 years ago (1971-04-16)
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)21 for control, 20 for data transfer
RFC(s)RFC 959

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before systèmes d'exploitation had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unixet Linux operating systems. Many dedicated FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for bureaux, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications such as HTML editors et file managers.

An FTP client used to be commonly integrated in web browsers, where file servers are browsed with the URI prefix "ftp://". In 2021, FTP support was dropped by Google Chrome and Firefox, two major web browser vendors, due to it being superseded by the more secure SFTP and FTPS; although neither of them have implemented the newer protocols.

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