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Incendie

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A brand is a distinct identity that differentiates one product or service from others. Originating from a practice of marking livestock in ancient times, brands have evolved to convey information about origin, quality, and value. Today, a brand is more than just a name or logo—it encompasses various elements like design, slogan[6], core values, and personality traits that resonate with consumers. The concept of brand management[2] has also emerged, focusing on building, maintaining, and aligning the organization with the brand. The effectiveness of a brand is often measured by its awareness and recognition among consumers. Brands communicate with their audience through various channels like publicité[4], promotions, direct marketing[1]et relations publiques[3], aiming to create emotional connections and loyauté[7]. Ultimately, a successful brand can drive ventes[8], enhance client[5] loyalty, and set a product apart in the marketplace.

Définitions des termes
1. direct marketing. Direct Marketing is a form of advertising strategy where businesses communicate directly with consumers to sell products or services. It's characterized by its targeted approach, prioritizing consumers who meet specific vendor-defined criteria. This advertising method involves direct communication channels like direct mail, telephone, email, and online tools, making it more focused compared to general marketing. It traces its roots back to the 15th-century Europe, with modern techniques pioneered by Josiah Wedgwood and further developed by the likes of Pryce Pryce-Jones and Aaron Montgomery Ward. Key objectives of direct marketing include selling products, generating leads, fostering customer relationships, and enhancing customer loyalty. Despite facing challenges such as spamming and unwanted emails, solutions like opt-out lists, variable printing, and legislation like the CAN-SPAM Act have been employed to ensure its effectiveness.
2. brand management. Brand management is a strategic process that involves developing, maintaining and enhancing a brand to create and uphold its positive reputation and strong image in the market. Stemming from historical practices of marking personal property, its modern form began with Neil H. McElroy of Procter & Gamble. Today, brand management aims to build lasting customer loyalty and increase a product's perceived value through positive associations. It explores brand identity, heritage, and the impact of branding strategies, all of which play crucial roles in a brand's success. In a competitive global market, a strong brand, such as Apple or Amazon, can provide a lasting competitive advantage. Academic research on this topic often emphasizes the role of brand heritage in marketing.
Incendie (Wikipedia)

A incendie is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that distinguishes one seller's good or service from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketinget publicité for recognition and, importantly, to create and store value as brand equity for the object identified, to the benefit of the brand's customers, its owners and shareholders. Brand names are sometimes distinguished from generic ou store brands.

Photograph of the entrance to the Ferrari head office and factory in Maranello, Italy
Ferrari was the world's most powerful brand in 2014 according to Brand Finance.
Les Coca-Cola wordmark is a distinctive brand logo used to attract the attention of people attending a sporting event, or watching it on television.

The practice of branding—in the original literal sense of marking by burning—is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who are known to have engaged in livestock branding and branded slaves as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person's cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal's skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. The term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that "brand" now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. It includes the voice and the tonality of the business. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine, cosmeticset fish sauce and, in the 21st century, extends even further into services (such as legal, financial et medical), political parties et people (e.g. Lady Gaga et Katy Perry). Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.

In the modern era, the concept of branding has expanded to include deployment by a manager of the marketing and communication techniques and tools that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand's identity, personality, product design, brand communication (such as by logos et trademarks), brand awareness, fidélité à la marque, and various branding (brand management) strategies. Many companies believe that there is often little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, hence branding is among a few remaining forms of product differentiation.

Capital marque is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by observing the effectiveness of these branding components. As markets become increasingly dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is built by the deployment of marketing techniques to increase customer satisfaction et customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits. When a customer is familiar with a brand or favors it incomparably to its competitors, a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand, defined as an intangible asset, is most often the most valuable asset on a corporation's balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands carefully to create shareholder value. Brand valuation is a management technique that ascribes a valeur monétaire to a brand, and allows marketing investment to be managed (e.g.: prioritized across a portfolio of brands) to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value.

The word "brand" is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque ou make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast-cancer awareness ou environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity.

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