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JavaScript is a powerful programming language that was officially introduced in 1995, and it has undergone significant evolution since its inception. It started with its use in the Mosaic browser and Netscape, and later was adopted by Microsoft[1], leading to a browser war due to compatibility issues. JavaScript was standardized by Ecma International, leading to the release of ECMAScript, which has several versions. It is widely used in client-side scripting, with a majority of websites using it to enable dynamic content, animations, and more. JavaScript also powers server-side applications and embedded systems, thanks to the introduction of platforms like Node.js. Its execution relies on JavaScript engines, with the V8 engine being a prominent example. Despite being a trademark of Oracle Corporation, JavaScript is open-source and adheres to ECMAScript implementations, offering features like structured and imperative programming.

Définitions des termes
1. Microsoft ( Microsoft ) Microsoft is a globally recognized technology company, well-known for its software, hardware, and other digital services. Founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen, it launched revolutionary products like the Windows operating system, Microsoft 365 suite, and the Xbox gaming consoles. Under the leadership of their current CEO, Satya Nadella, Microsoft broadened its scope to include cloud computing and pursued a policy of active acquisitions, including GitHub and Mojang, to enhance its product offerings. Despite facing criticisms and legal challenges over monopoly behavior and usability issues, Microsoft has maintained a solid financial performance, even achieving a trillion-dollar market cap in 2019. Today, it continues to innovate and expand, holding a significant position in the global tech industry.
JavaScript (Wikipedia)

JavaScript (/ˈɑːvəskrɪpt/), often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language and core technology of the Web, alongside HTML et CSS. 99% of sites web use JavaScript on the client side for webpage behavior.

Screenshot of JavaScript source code
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: event-driven, functional, imperative, procedural, object-oriented
Designed byBrendan Eich ou Netscape initially; others have also contributed to the ECMAScript standard
First appearedDecember 4, 1995; 28 years ago (1995-12-04)
Stable release
ECMAScript 2023 Edit this on Wikidata / June 2023; 10 months ago (June 2023)
Preview release
ECMAScript 2025 Edit this on Wikidata / 28 February 2024; 43 days ago (28 February 2024)
Typing disciplineDynamic, weak, duck
Filename extensions
  • .js
  • .cjs
  • .mjs
Major implementations
V8, JavaScriptCore, SpiderMonkey, Chakra
Influenced by
Java, Scheme, Self, AWK, HyperTalk
ActionScript, ArkTS, AssemblyScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, Haxe, JS++, Opa, TypeScript

Web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine that executes the client code. These engines are also utilized in some servers and a variety of applications. The most popular runtime system for non-browser usage is Node.js.

JavaScript is a high-level, often just-in-time compiled language that conforms to the ECMAScript standard. It has dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientationet first-class functions. It is multi-paradigm, supporting event-driven, functionalet imperative programming styles. It has application programming interfaces (APIs) for working with text, dates, regular expressions, standard data structureset le Document Object Model (DOM).

The ECMAScript standard does not include any input/output (I/O), such as networking, storageou Graphiques facilities. In practice, the web browser or other runtime system provides JavaScript APIs for I/O.

Although Java and JavaScript are similar in name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design.

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