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Ordinateur

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A computer is a sophisticated device that manipulates data or information according to a set of instructions, known as programs. By design, computers can perform a wide range of tasks, from simple arithmetic calculations to complex data processing and analysis. They have evolved over the years, starting from primitive counting tools like abacus to modern digital machines. The heart of a computer is its central processing unit (CPU), which includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for performing mathematical operations and registers for storing data. Computers also have memory units, like ROM and RAM, for storing information. Other components include input/output (I/O) devices that allow interaction with the machine and integrated circuits that enhance the computer’s functionality. Key historical innovations, like the invention of the first programmable computer by Charles Babbage and the development of the first automatic electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), have greatly contributed to their evolution. Today, computers power the Internet[1], linking billions of users worldwide and have become an essential tool in almost every industry.

Définitions des termes
1. Internet ( Internet ) L'internet est un système mondial de réseaux informatiques interconnectés qui utilisent des protocoles de communication normalisés, principalement le TCP/IP, pour relier des appareils dans le monde entier. Issu du terme "internetted" utilisé en 1849, le terme "Internet" a ensuite été utilisé par le ministère américain de la guerre en 1945. Son développement a commencé avec des informaticiens qui ont créé des systèmes de partage de temps dans les années 1960 et a progressé avec la création d'ARPANET en 1969. L'internet est autogéré, sans autorité centrale, et ses principaux espaces de noms sont administrés par l'Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Il a considérablement transformé les moyens de communication traditionnels et s'est développé de manière exponentielle au fil des ans, le nombre d'internautes augmentant de 20% à 50% par an. En 2019, plus de la moitié de la population mondiale utilisait l'internet. La suite de protocoles internet, qui comprend le protocole TCP/IP et quatre couches conceptuelles, guide les paquets internet jusqu'à leur destination. Des services essentiels comme le courrier électronique et la téléphonie par internet fonctionnent sur l'internet. Le World Wide Web, une collection mondiale de documents interconnectés, est un élément clé de l'internet.
Ordinateur (Wikipedia)

A ordinateur est un machine that can be programmed to automatically carry out sequences of arithmetic ou logical operations (computation). Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. The term computer system may refer to a nominally complete computer that includes the hardware, système d'exploitation, softwareet peripheral equipment needed and used for full operation; or to a group of computers that are linked and function together, such as a computer network ou computer cluster.

Man replacing one vacuum tube out of hundreds in early computer
Computer room with multiple computer cabinets and operating panel
Smartphone with rainbow-like display held in a hand
Black desktop computer with monitor on top and keyboard in front
Purple video game console with attached controller
Rows of large, dark computer cabinets in warehouse-like room
Computers and computing devices from different eras - left to right, top to bottom:

A broad range of industrial et consumer products use computers as control systems, including simple special-purpose devices like microwave ovens et remote controls, and factory devices like industrial robots. Computers are at the core of general-purpose devices such as personal computers et mobile devices such as smartphones. Computers power the Internet, which links billions of computers and users.

Early computers were meant to be used only for calculations. Simple manual instruments like the abacus have aided people in doing calculations since ancient times. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long, tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II, both electromechanical and using thermionic valves. The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit chip technologies in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the 1970s. The speed, power and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then, with transistor counts increasing at a rapid pace (Moore's law noted that counts doubled every two years), leading to the Digital Revolution during the late 20th to early 21st centuries.

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a microprocessor, together with some type of computer memory, typically semiconductor memory chips. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, imprimantes, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.

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