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Activism

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Activism is a broad term that refers to the action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change. It can be categorized into several types, such as human rights, environmental, animal rights, and conservative activism. Each type has its own specific focus but they all share a common goal of effecting change. Activists use various methods to achieve their goals, including nonviolent tactics, political campaigning, internet activism[1], and economic activism. Additionally, there are specific forms of activism such as consumer[3], art, science, and shareholder activism. The impact and influence of activism are wide-ranging, from shaping social, political, and economic landscapes to influencing public discourse[2] and corporate practices.

Terms definitions
1. internet activism.
1 Internet activism, also known as digital activism or online activism, is a form of activism that uses the internet and digital media as key platforms for mass communication and mobilization. It encompasses a wide range of activities, including but not limited to, efforts aimed at raising awareness, mobilizing support, and coordinating actions for social, political, or environmental change. This form of activism can be categorized based on the level of reliance on the internet versus offline mobilization, and the strategies and purposes of the activism. It has grown over time, with notable examples including opposition to the Lotus Marketplace, the #MeToo movement, and the Arab Spring. Internet activism can be used by various groups, from grassroots organizations to corporate entities, leveraging the power of digital platforms to influence opinions and effect change. It's important to note that the effectiveness and impact of online activism can be influenced by various factors, such as internet access, digital literacy, and resistance from powerful organizations.
2 Internet activism, also known as online activism or digital campaigning, is a form of activism that uses the internet and digital media as primary tools for communicating, organizing, mobilizing, and raising awareness. It involves various types, ranging from active or reactive forms to mobilizing and awareness-raising forms. It can be purely online, like internet sleuthing or hacking, or have both online and offline components. Internet activism plays a crucial role in collective actions, revolutionary movements, and political mobilization. It also aids marginalized groups, progressive candidates, and insurgent movements in voicing their concerns. Notable examples include opposition to Lotus Marketplace, the EZLN's anti-globalization movements, and the Kony 2012 campaign. Internet activism also uses social media platforms for hashtag activism, which supports causes through specific hashtags like #MeToo and #BlackLivesMatter. The impact of online activism on political campaigns and corporate activism has been significant.
2. discourse. Discourse, the primary subject of this text, is a term used in social sciences to describe formal discussions or debates on a specific topic. It encompasses the language expressions, conversations, and written texts that shape our understanding of societal structures. Discourse is deeply linked to power dynamics and plays a significant role in shaping reality. There are several theoretical frameworks that shed light on discourse, including modernism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and Foucault's discourse theory. Different types of discourse analysis, such as critical, conversation, and Foucauldian discourse analysis, help us understand communication patterns and societal structures. The study of discourse has wide applications across various fields including sociology, environmental policy, and cultural studies, and has profound implications on gendered discourses and societal norms. Renowned scholars like James P. Gee, Robert Stalnaker, and Peter Pagin have contributed significantly to discourse analysis. Discourse research is highly relevant in social sciences and informs our understanding of language, identity, and power structures.
Activism (Wikipedia)

Activism (or advocacy) consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct or intervene in social, political, economic or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society toward a perceived greater good. Forms of activism range from mandate building in a community (including writing letters to newspapers), petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage (or boycott) of businesses, and demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, or hunger strikes.

Barricade at the Paris Commune, March 1871.
Civil rights activists at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom during the civil rights movement in August 1963.
A women's liberation march in Washington, D.C., August 1970.

Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art (artivism), computer hacking (hacktivism), or simply in how one chooses to spend their money (economic activism). For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most highly visible and impactful activism often comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action that is purposeful, organized, and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.

Historically, activists have used literature, including pamphlets, tracts, and books to disseminate or propagate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology. Left-wing and right-wing online activists often use different tactics. Hashtag activism and offline protest are more common on the left. Working strategically with partisan media, migrating to alternative platforms, and manipulation of mainstream media are more common on the right (in the United States). In addition, the perception of increased left-wing activism in science and academia may decrease conservative trust in science and motivate some forms of conservative activism, including on college campuses. Some scholars have also shown how the influence of very wealthy Americans is a form of activism.

Separating activism and terrorism can be difficult and has been described as a 'fine line'.

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