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Black hat (computer security)

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The main entity in this text is Black Hat Hackers. These are individuals who infiltrate computer[2] systems with harmful intent, often distributing malware[3] to steal various types of information. They may work independently or as part of criminal organizations, and their actions can result in significant financial or personal damage. Famous instances of black hat hacking include Kevin Mitnick’s 1979 hack of The Ark and the devastating WannaCry ransomware attack. These hackers are contrasted with ethical, or white hat hackers, who work to uncover system vulnerabilities in order to enhance security[4], and grey hat[1] hackers, who may test the boundaries of legality or ethics but do not have harmful intentions. Black hat hackers play a significant role in cybercrime and pose a major threat to individuals, businesses, and governments.

Terms definitions
1. grey hat. The term "Grey Hat" is used within the context of computer security and hacking. First appearing in 1996, the term has been defined and redefined by various hacker groups and communities over the years. A grey hat hacker is known for their ethical yet sometimes legally questionable practices. They often identify and expose security vulnerabilities, prompting improvements in cybersecurity. Grey hat techniques also appear in the world of Search Engine Optimization (SEO), where they refer to strategies that, while not outright banned, may still be considered unethical. The grey hat community is a diverse one, sharing knowledge through various platforms and grappling with the ethical implications of their work. It's important to understand that while grey hat practices can lead to advancements in security, they must be balanced with respect for privacy rights.
2. computer. A computer is a sophisticated device that manipulates data or information according to a set of instructions, known as programs. By design, computers can perform a wide range of tasks, from simple arithmetic calculations to complex data processing and analysis. They have evolved over the years, starting from primitive counting tools like abacus to modern digital machines. The heart of a computer is its central processing unit (CPU), which includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for performing mathematical operations and registers for storing data. Computers also have memory units, like ROM and RAM, for storing information. Other components include input/output (I/O) devices that allow interaction with the machine and integrated circuits that enhance the computer's functionality. Key historical innovations, like the invention of the first programmable computer by Charles Babbage and the development of the first automatic electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), have greatly contributed to their evolution. Today, computers power the Internet, linking billions of users worldwide and have become an essential tool in almost every industry.

A black hat (black hat hacker or blackhat) is a computer hacker who violates laws or ethical standards for nefarious purposes, such as cybercrime, cyberwarfare, or malice. These acts can range from piracy to identify theft. A Black hat is often referred to as a "cracker".

The term originates from 1950s westerns, with "bad guys" (criminals) typically depicted as having worn black hats and "good guys" (heroes) wearing white ones. In the same way, black hat hacking is contrasted with the more ethical white hat approach to hacking. Additionally, there exists a third category, called grey hat hacking, characterized by individuals who hack, usually with good intentions but by illegal means.

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