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Border Gateway Protocol

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The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a fundamental protocol designed to direct internet[2] traffic across the globe. First sketched out informally in 1989, it was officially described in the same year in RFC 1105, and has been actively used on the Internet since 1994. BGP works as a path vector protocol and operates based on Transmission Control Protocol[1] (TCP), using port 179 for communication. It establishes sessions between peers to exchange routing information, selecting the best routes through a decision process. BGP is essential for supporting policy-based routing, traffic engineering, and preventing routing loops. However, it does face challenges such as security[3] vulnerabilities, scalability issues, route flapping, and a lack of built-in encryption, which can lead to resource consumption in large networks. Despite these, it remains a crucial component of the Internet’s infrastructure.

Terms definitions
1. Transmission Control Protocol ( Transmission Control Protocol ) The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a key technology that makes the internet work. It was introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974 and detailed in the Request for Comments (RFC) 675. TCP is a set of rules for managing the delivery of data over the internet or other networks. It ensures data travels safely, quickly, and in the right order from one computer to another. TCP is responsible for creating a connection between computers, maintaining it, and ending it when it's no longer needed. It also takes care of re-sending any data that gets lost along the way. TCP is used by many internet applications like email, web browsing, and streaming media. It's also important for managing network performance and security. TCP's segment structure, which includes a header and data section, contains important information for data delivery. Despite its many strengths, TCP also has vulnerabilities that need to be managed, like the potential for denial of service attacks.
2. internet. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use standardized communication protocols, primarily the TCP/IP, to link devices worldwide. Originating from the term 'internetted' used in 1849, the term 'Internet' was later used by the US War Department in 1945. Its development began with computer scientists creating time-sharing systems in the 1960s and further progressed with the establishment of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet is self-governed, without a central authority, and its principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). It has significantly transformed traditional communication media and has grown exponentially over the years, with internet users increasing 20% to 50% annually. In 2019, over half of the world population used the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, which includes TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, guides internet packets to their destinations. Essential services like email and Internet telephony operate on the Internet. The World Wide Web, a global collection of interconnected documents, is a key component of the Internet.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. BGP is classified as a path-vector routing protocol, and it makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator.

Border Gateway Protocol
Communication protocol
BGP state machine
AbbreviationBGP
Purposeexchange Internet Protocol routing information
IntroductionJune 1, 1989; 34 years ago (1989-06-01)
Based onEGP
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)tcp/179
RFC(s)§ Standards documents

BGP used for routing within an autonomous system is called Interior Border Gateway Protocol (IBGP). In contrast, the Internet application of the protocol is called Exterior Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP).

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