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Campaign advertising

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Campaign advertising[1] is a strategy used by political candidates to influence the public’s perception and garner support during elections. It has evolved significantly over time, with the introduction of different mediums like television[3] and social media[2]. Campaign advertising includes various tactics such as attack ads, emotional appeals, and positive messages to shape voters’ attitudes towards candidates. It plays a crucial role in informing voters about the candidate’s positions and can significantly affect voter participation in elections. Different countries have different regulations regarding campaign advertising, ranging from little to heavy regulation. The impact and regulation of campaign advertising vary globally, influenced by regional laws and cultural norms.

Terms definitions
1. advertising. Advertising is a form of communication used to inform or persuade an audience, often with the goal of selling a product or service. Its history dates back to ancient civilizations, where Egyptians used papyrus for sales messages, and wall paintings were used in ancient Asia, Africa, and South America for promotional purposes. The medium evolved over time, from print in newspapers to audio-visual and digital mediums, with the rise of mass media and technological advancements. Advertising strategies can vary, aiming to raise awareness or drive sales, and can target different audiences on a local, national, or global scale. Various methods include print, radio, web banners, and television ads, among others. New trends have emerged in the advertising business models, like guerrilla marketing and interactive ads. The role of women in advertising has also been notable, with their insights being valued due to their purchasing power.
2. social media. Social media is a broad term encompassing a variety of digital tools and platforms that facilitate the sharing of information and the creation of virtual communities. Emerging from early systems like PLATO and ARPANET, it has evolved into modern platforms like Facebook and Twitter. These platforms offer unique features that differentiate them from traditional media, including the ability for users to generate content and engage in dialogic communication. They cater to over 100 million users globally and offer different forms of services, such as messaging apps and collaborative content creation platforms. The use of social media has far-reaching impacts on individuals, society, and businesses, influencing everything from marketing practices to political processes. However, it's also associated with ethical concerns, such as the spread of misinformation and potential addiction.

In politics, campaign advertising is propaganda through the media to influence a political debate and, ultimately, voters. Political consultants and political campaign staff design these ads. Many countries restrict the use of broadcast media to broadcast political messages. In the European Union, many countries do not permit paid-for TV or radio advertising for fear that wealthy groups will gain control of airtime, making fair play impossible and distorting the political debate.

One of the most controversial campaign adverts of the time, "Daisy", helped to swing the 1964 United States presidential election, in favor of Lyndon B. Johnson.

In both the United Kingdom and Ireland, paid advertisements are forbidden, though political parties are allowed a small number of party political broadcasts in the run-up to election time. The United States has a very free market for broadcast political messaging. Canada allows paid-for political broadcasts but requires equitable access to the airwaves.

Campaigns can include several different media (depending on local law). The period over which political campaign advertising is possible varies significantly from country to country, with campaigns in the United States lasting a year or more to places like the UK and Ireland, where advertising is restricted by law to just a short period of weeks before the election. Social media has become very important in political messaging, making it possible to message larger groups of constituents with minimal physical effort or expense. Still, the totality of messaging through these channels often needs to be put in the hands of campaign managers.

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