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Computer programming

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Computer[2] programming is a crucial field within computer science, which involves the creation of instruction sets that computers execute to accomplish specific tasks. Originating with pioneers like Ada Lovelace, programming has evolved significantly over time. From primitive programmable devices in the 9th century to the advent of stored-program computers in the 1949, the discipline has seen tremendous growth. Various programming languages and tools, like machine code, assembly languages, and high-level languages, have been developed to simplify the coding process. Modern programming places emphasis on quality attributes such as reliability, robustness, usability, portability, and maintainability. It involves various concepts and techniques like readability of source code, algorithmic complexity, and software development[1] methodologies. Besides coding, a programmer’s skills encompass prototyping, debugging, documentation, and integration. The field also extends to related topics like computer networking and competitive programming. This discipline is not just about writing code, but understanding and building functional and efficient software systems.

Terms definitions
1. software development. Software development is a structured process involving various methods, processes, phases, testing and production stages, as well as diverse personnel and tools. The methodologies include strategies like code-and-fix, iterative, waterfall, Agile, and DevOps, each suited for different project needs. The software development process consists of steps such as the software development life cycle, feasibility analysis, the analysis phase, design, and programming. The phases involve feasibility analysis, requirements analysis, detailed specifications, decomposition, and design. Testing and production encompass activities like code testing, debugging, quality assurance, production deployment, and bug fixing. Finally, the process requires team collaboration, effective communication, and the use of various tools such as Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), Integrated Development Environments (IDEs), and version control systems. Intellectual property and licensing considerations are also crucial in software development.
2. Computer ( Computer ) A computer is a sophisticated device that manipulates data or information according to a set of instructions, known as programs. By design, computers can perform a wide range of tasks, from simple arithmetic calculations to complex data processing and analysis. They have evolved over the years, starting from primitive counting tools like abacus to modern digital machines. The heart of a computer is its central processing unit (CPU), which includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for performing mathematical operations and registers for storing data. Computers also have memory units, like ROM and RAM, for storing information. Other components include input/output (I/O) devices that allow interaction with the machine and integrated circuits that enhance the computer's functionality. Key historical innovations, like the invention of the first programmable computer by Charles Babbage and the development of the first automatic electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), have greatly contributed to their evolution. Today, computers power the Internet, linking billions of users worldwide and have become an essential tool in almost every industry.

Computer programming or coding is the composition of sequences of instructions, called programs, that computers can follow to perform tasks. It involves designing and implementing algorithms, step-by-step specifications of procedures, by writing code in one or more programming languages. Programmers typically use high-level programming languages that are more easily intelligible to humans than machine code, which is directly executed by the central processing unit. Proficient programming usually requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, details of programming languages and generic code libraries, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.

Auxiliary tasks accompanying and related to programming include analyzing requirements, testing, debugging (investigating and fixing problems), implementation of build systems, and management of derived artifacts, such as programs' machine code. While these are sometimes considered programming, often the term software development is used for this larger overall process – with the terms programming, implementation, and coding reserved for the writing and editing of code per se. Sometimes software development is known as software engineering, especially when it employs formal methods or follows an engineering design process.

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