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Customer engagement

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Customer engagement[1] is a term that encapsulates the interaction and involvement of consumers with a company or brand[8]. This concept, which was defined by various organizations between 2006 and 2008, can be seen in both online and offline settings and has a significant impact on marketing practices. It involves the co-creation[2] of personalized experiences, with key dimensions including immersion, passion, and activation. However, ethical concerns can arise, particularly with regards to maximizing user engagement. Technology[4] plays a vital role in this process, fostering an interactive culture and facilitating connections between consumers and organizations. Customer[5] engagement is also heavily influenced by social media[3] platforms, where content and influencer activity can drive engagement strategies. Measurement metrics are crucial in assessing customer engagement, with likes, replies, and retweets on Twitter[6] being examples of this. This complex interaction between businesses and customers ultimately aims to foster loyalty[7] and long-term relationships.

Terms definitions
1. Customer engagement ( Customer engagement )
1 Customer engagement is a term that encapsulates the interaction and involvement of consumers with a company or brand. This concept, which was defined by various organizations between 2006 and 2008, can be seen in both online and offline settings and has a significant impact on marketing practices. It involves the co-creation of personalized experiences, with key dimensions including immersion, passion, and activation. However, ethical concerns can arise, particularly with regards to maximizing user engagement. Technology plays a vital role in this process, fostering an interactive culture and facilitating connections between consumers and organizations. Customer engagement is also heavily influenced by social media platforms, where content and influencer activity can drive engagement strategies. Measurement metrics are crucial in assessing customer engagement, with likes, replies, and retweets on Twitter being examples of this. This complex interaction between businesses and customers ultimately aims to foster loyalty and long-term relationships.
2 Customer engagement is a term that encapsulates the interaction and involvement of consumers with a company or brand. This concept, which was defined by various organizations between 2006 and 2008, can be seen in both online and offline settings and has a significant impact on marketing practices. It involves the co-creation of personalized experiences, with key dimensions including immersion, passion, and activation. However, ethical concerns can arise, particularly with regards to maximizing user engagement. Technology plays a vital role in this process, fostering an interactive culture and facilitating connections between consumers and organizations. Customer engagement is also heavily influenced by social media platforms, where content and influencer activity can drive engagement strategies. Measurement metrics are crucial in assessing customer engagement, with likes, replies, and retweets on Twitter being examples of this. This complex interaction between businesses and customers ultimately aims to foster loyalty and long-term relationships.
2. Co-creation ( co-creation ) Co-creation is a business strategy that involves customers in the development process to produce a mutually beneficial outcome. This collaborative approach allows customers to participate in various ways, from simple contributions to modifying the product or even designing it. Co-creation allows businesses to redefine their value creation process, focusing on the consumer. It involves different stages and may pose several risks. Various concepts like co-design, co-marketing and crowdsourcing are linked to co-creation. It is a subject of extensive academic research and has practical applications in business. This strategy, discussed by renowned authors like Prahalad and Ramaswamy, has implications for marketing, consumer research, and value creation. Co-creation can lead to personalized experiences, revenue generation, and customer loyalty, ultimately transforming businesses into customer-centric entities.

Customer engagement is an interaction between an external consumer/customer (either B2C or B2B) and an organization (company or brand) through various online or offline channels. According to Hollebeek, Srivastava and Chen (2019, p. 166) S-D logic-Definition of customer engagement is "a customer’s motivationally driven, volitional investment of operant resources (including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social knowledge and skills), and operand resources (e.g., equipment) into brand interactions," which applies to online and offline engagement.

Online customer engagement is qualitatively different from offline engagement as the nature of the customer's interactions with a brand, company and other customers differ on the internet. Discussion forums or blogs, for example, are spaces where people can communicate and socialise in ways that cannot be replicated by any offline interactive medium. Online customer engagement is a social phenomenon that became mainstream with the wide adoption of the internet in the late 1990s, which has expanded the technical developments in broadband speed, connectivity and social media. These factors enable customer behaviour to regularly engage in online communities revolving, directly or indirectly, around product categories and other consumption topics. This process leads to a customer's positive engagement with the company or offering, as well as the behaviours associated with different degrees of customer engagement.

Marketing practices aim to create, stimulate or influence customer behaviour, which places conversions into a more strategic context and is premised on the understanding that a focus on maximising conversions can, in some circumstances, decrease the likelihood of repeat conversions.[citation needed] Although customer advocacy has always been a goal for marketers, the rise of online user-generated content has directly influenced levels of advocacy. Customer engagement targets long-term interactions, encouraging customer loyalty and advocacy through word-of-mouth. Although customer engagement marketing is consistent both online and offline, the internet is the basis for marketing efforts.

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