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Deepfake[3] technology[4] is a rapidly advancing field that involves the creation of fake but highly realistic images, videos, or audio recordings. Originating in the 19th century with photo manipulation, this technology took a significant leap in the 1990s with the advent of digital video[2]. Using techniques like Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), deepfakes have become increasingly lifelike. However, they’re not without controversy. Issues of ethics, particularly in pornography, and potential misuse for disinformation[1] have sparked conversations about regulation. Despite these concerns, deepfakes have found positive applications in areas like entertainment, where they’re used for visual effects and de-ageing characters, and in corporate training, where personalized videos can be created. Nonetheless, as deepfakes continue to evolve, discussions about their societal impact and the potential for manipulation remain ongoing.

Terms definitions
1. disinformation. Disinformation is a complex concept with roots tracing back to the Proto-Indo-European language family. It refers to the intentional spreading of false or misleading information, often for political or social influence. This phenomenon became widespread in the 1980s and has been a subject of extensive research to understand its origins, methods, and impacts. Disinformation is often used in deception campaigns on social media and is distinct from misinformation and malinformation. It's common in political arenas, where it can confuse citizens and discourage their engagement. Disinformation has global implications, being used by governments, NGOs, and businesses worldwide. It can undermine election security and create societal divisions. Various countermeasures have been initiated by organizations like NATO and the EU to address this issue. The study of disinformation also extends to ethical considerations and its role in warfare. Despite these efforts, disinformation remains a challenging issue due to its widespread prevalence and the difficulty in assessing its true impact.
2. digital video. Digital video, the main subject of this text, is a type of digital recording system that works by using a digital rather than an analog video signal. The technology was first established when MOS image sensors were used in digital video cameras. Since then, it has undergone several developments, including the invention of the first semiconductor image sensor, CCD, and the shift of the entertainment industry to digital imaging. Today, digital video is widely used in various sectors, such as entertainment, education, and research. It is also utilized in different applications like surveillance, storage, and tracking vital signs in the healthcare sector. A key feature of digital video is its ability to be easily copied and distributed without loss of quality. It also offers various storage options, including Blu-ray Discs, data storage devices, and internet streaming. Its technical aspects involve bandwidth consumption for live videos and storage consumption for recorded videos, with compression significantly reducing data consumption. There are also different video formats for consumer and professional use. The highest resolution of digital video demonstrated to date is 132.7 megapixels.
Deepfake (Wikipedia)

Deepfakes (portmanteau of "deep learning" and "fake") are synthetic media that have been digitally manipulated to replace one person's likeness convincingly with that of another. It can also refer to computer-generated images of human subjects that do not exist in real life. While the act of creating fake content is not new, deepfakes leverage tools and techniques from machine learning and artificial intelligence, including facial recognition algorithms and artificial neural networks such as variational autoencoders (VAEs) and generative adversarial networks (GANs). In turn the field of image forensics develops techniques to detect manipulated images.

Deepfakes have garnered widespread attention for their potential use in creating child sexual abuse material, celebrity pornographic videos, revenge porn, fake news, hoaxes, bullying, and financial fraud. The spreading of disinformation and hate speech through deepfakes has a potential to undermine core functions and norms of democratic systems by interfering with people's ability to participate in decisions that affect them, determine collective agendas and express political will through informed decision-making. This has elicited responses from both industry and government to detect and limit their use.

From traditional entertainment to gaming, deepfake technology has evolved to be increasingly convincing and available to the public, allowing the disruption of the entertainment and media industries.

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