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Extraversion and introversion

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Extraversion and introversion are personality traits that describe how individuals respond to their environment. The term ‘introverted’ was first introduced by Carl Jung in 1909, and the concept has since been developed and studied by various psychologists. Extraverts are typically outgoing, talkative, and thrive on social interaction. They find energy in large gatherings and may feel bored when alone. On the other hand, introverts are reflective and enjoy solitary activities. They prefer quiet environments and can often feel overwhelmed by excessive social stimulation. Ambiverts fall in the middle of this spectrum, exhibiting traits of both. The prevalence and misconceptions about these traits vary, with studies suggesting that 33 to 50% of the American population are introverts. The traits are typically assessed through self-report measures, peer-reports, and third-party observation. Both biological factors and environmental influences play a role in an individual’s level of extraversion or introversion.

Extraversion and introversion are a central trait dimension in human personality theory. The terms were introduced into psychology by Carl Jung, though both the popular understanding and current psychological usage are not the same as Jung's original concept. Extraversion (also spelled extroversion) tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reflective and reserved behavior. Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterised by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents", and extraversion as "an attitude-type characterised by concentration of interest on the external object".

Behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing introversion and extraversion, which are generally conceived as lying along a continuum.

Extraversion and introversion are typically viewed as a single continuum, so to be higher in one necessitates being lower in the other. Jung provides a different perspective and suggests that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other. Virtually all comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms. Examples include the Big Five model, Jung's analytical psychology, Hans Eysenck's three-factor model, Raymond Cattell's 16 personality factors, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.

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