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Fact-checking

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Fact-checking is a critical process in journalism and information dissemination, used to verify the accuracy of statements, claims, and news. It originated in the 1850s in response to sensationalist newspapers and has evolved significantly since, with key contributors including the Associated Press, Ralph Pulitzer, Henry Luce, and The New Yorker. Fact-checking can be done before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) information is published, with various organizations and media outlets dedicated to the task. It holds significant influence in political discourse[1], deterring politicians from spreading misinformation and impacting public perception and belief in political claims. Fact-checking also extends to informal contexts, where individuals and technology[2] play a role in verifying news and identifying fake news[3]. Despite its effectiveness, fact-checking alone may not fully combat misinformation, necessitating its inclusion in educational curriculums.

Terms definitions
1. discourse. Discourse, the primary subject of this text, is a term used in social sciences to describe formal discussions or debates on a specific topic. It encompasses the language expressions, conversations, and written texts that shape our understanding of societal structures. Discourse is deeply linked to power dynamics and plays a significant role in shaping reality. There are several theoretical frameworks that shed light on discourse, including modernism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and Foucault's discourse theory. Different types of discourse analysis, such as critical, conversation, and Foucauldian discourse analysis, help us understand communication patterns and societal structures. The study of discourse has wide applications across various fields including sociology, environmental policy, and cultural studies, and has profound implications on gendered discourses and societal norms. Renowned scholars like James P. Gee, Robert Stalnaker, and Peter Pagin have contributed significantly to discourse analysis. Discourse research is highly relevant in social sciences and informs our understanding of language, identity, and power structures.
2. technology. Technology, derived from the Greek words meaning craft and knowledge, is a broad term that refers to the tools, machines, and systems developed by humans to solve problems or fulfill objectives. Originating with primitive tools like stone axes and the discovery of fire, technology has evolved significantly throughout human history. It has been instrumental in different eras, from the invention of the wheel and advanced irrigation systems in ancient civilizations to the birth of universities and printing press during the medieval and Renaissance periods. The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century marked a significant shift in mass production and innovation, giving rise to modern technologies like electricity, automobiles, and digital communication platforms. Today, technology is integral to various aspects of life and society, driving economic growth and societal change, while also raising concerns about security, privacy, and environmental impacts. The future of technology is expected to bring even more advancements, with the rise of artificial intelligence predicted to have significant implications for the job market.
Fact-checking (Wikipedia)

Fact-checking is the process of verifying the factual accuracy of questioned reporting and statements. Fact-checking can be conducted before or after the text or content is published or otherwise disseminated. Internal fact-checking is such checking done in-house by the publisher to prevent inaccurate content from being published; when the text is analyzed by a third party, the process is called external fact-checking.

Research suggests that fact-checking can indeed correct perceptions among citizens, as well as discourage politicians from spreading false or misleading claims. However, corrections may decay over time or be overwhelmed by cues from elites who promote less accurate claims. Political fact-checking is sometimes criticized as being opinion journalism. A review of US politics fact-checkers shows a mixed result of whether fact-checking is an effective way to reduce misconceptions, and whether the method is reliable.

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