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Fake news website

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Fake News[2] Website[3]” is a term that refers to internet[4] sites that deliberately publish false, misleading, or sensational information, often disguised as authentic news. These websites typically use striking headlines to entice readers and encourage click-throughs, often for the purpose of generating online advertising[1] revenue. They can have significant societal effects, particularly in the political realm, where they can sway public opinion and promote falsehoods. Recognizing the dangers, tech giants, world leaders, and various institutions are making efforts to combat the prevalence of these sites. Some well-known sources of such fallacious content originate from countries like Russia, North Macedonia, Romania, and the United States. The global impact of fake news websites is widespread, influencing events in countries from China to Germany to the United States. Various measures, both legislative and executive, are being taken worldwide in response to the rise of these fake news sites.

Terms definitions
1. online advertising.
1 Online Advertising refers to the method of delivering promotional content to users through the internet. It began in 1995, with significant developments such as the first email advertising in 1978, the introduction of online banner advertising in the early 1990s, and the launch of Google's AdWords in 2000. Various formats and sales models are used, including floating and expanding ads, trick banners and News Feed Ads, often sold in real-time bidding markets. The practice of programmatic advertising uses software to select and target ads, leveraging data from cookies and behavioral tracking to create detailed user profiles. This is complemented by Data Management Platforms, which manage first, second, and third-party data. The process of ad exchange involves ad space offers being sent to an ad exchange, where demand side platforms bid on the space. Social Media Marketing and Mobile Advertising are also prevalent forms, with the latter experiencing significant growth due to increased mobile device usage. These methods aim to increase website visibility, enhance brand engagement, and improve customer reach.
2 Online advertising is a marketing strategy that involves the use of the internet as a medium to obtain website traffic and target and deliver marketing messages to the right customers. It has evolved from the early days of simple email marketing and banner ads to more sophisticated methods like search ads, social media, and mobile advertising. This form of advertising is driven by various sales and delivery models, including direct management by website publishers, outsourcing to agencies, ad exchanges, and automated programmatic advertising. Innovative techniques have emerged over time, aiming to capture user attention and increase engagement. These strategies include floating and expanding ads, trick banners, news feed ads, search engine marketing, and social media marketing. The evolution of online advertising showcases its adaptability to changing consumer behavior and technology advancements.
3 Online advertising, also known as digital advertising, is a modern marketing strategy that uses the internet to deliver promotional content to consumers. It originated around the mid-1990s and has since undergone significant evolution, notably shifting from early restrictions on commercial activities on networks like ARPANET and NSFNet. Online advertising includes various formats such as floating ads, expanding ads, trick banners, and news feed ads. It utilizes advanced technology like programmatic advertising and data management platforms to automate ad sale and delivery, improve targeting, and enhance efficiency. Key strategies under online advertising include Search Engine Marketing (SEM), Search Engine Optimization (SEO), sponsored search, social media marketing, and mobile advertising. These strategies aim to increase website visibility, improve relevance to search terms, and deliver ad content across different platforms and devices.
4 Online advertising refers to the use of internet services to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It encompasses a wide range of services, from email marketing, which started in 1978, to modern-day mobile advertising. Online advertising saw significant growth from the early 1990s with the advent of display ads and has since evolved to include various ad formats such as floating ads, expanding ads, trick banners, and News Feed Ads. The industry has also seen a shift towards integrating advertising into editorial content or services, focusing on social media advertising, and increasing mobile ad spending. Data management platforms are used to aggregate and categorize user data, and programmatic advertising further targets ads using this data. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Search Engine Optimization (SEO), sponsored searches, and mobile advertising are all critical facets of online advertising. This multi-faceted approach allows for a personalized and targeted advertising experience for users.
5 Online advertising is a digital marketing strategy that uses the internet as a medium to promote products and services. It began its journey in 1995 and since then, it has evolved significantly. Early restrictions on online advertising were lifted when NSFNet ended its commercial use ban in 1991. The first notable online ad was sent in 1978 by DEC and email marketing grew rapidly thereafter. Over the years, various advertising formats and strategies have emerged. These include floating ads, expanding ads, trick banners, and News Feed Ads among others. Online advertising also employs advanced techniques like programmatic advertising, behavioral targeting, and geotargeting. Additionally, it involves a variety of sales and delivery models, with website publishers either serving ads directly or outsourcing them to agencies. Google, with its tools like AdWords, has played a significant role in popularizing online advertising. Today, this form of advertising is an integral part of the digital world, merging with editorial content, social media, and mobile advertising.
2. Fake news ( Fake News ) Fake news refers to inaccurate or outright false information that is presented as if it were true news. This term came into popular usage in 2017, and is often used for political or financial gains. Fake news is not limited to but can include things like hoaxes, alternative facts, and misinformation. Satirical sites sometimes label themselves as fake news, but it can also be found on news aggregators or political sites. The spread of fake news can undermine trust in legitimate news sources and distort the public's understanding of important issues. Efforts to combat fake news may involve self-regulation, legal regulation, individual action, and the use of technology such as artificial intelligence. Recognizing fake news involves looking for signs like clickbait, propaganda, and media bias, and people can use tools like fact-checking websites and media literacy programs to help differentiate between real and fake news.
Fake news website (Wikipedia)

Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news websites) are websites on the Internet that deliberately publish fake newshoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news—often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect. Unlike news satire, fake news websites deliberately seek to be perceived as legitimate and taken at face value, often for financial or political gain. Such sites have promoted political falsehoods in India, Germany, Indonesia and the Philippines, Sweden, Mexico, Myanmar, and the United States. Many sites originate in, or are promoted by, Russia, North Macedonia, and Romania, among others. Some media analysts have seen them as a threat to democracy. In 2016, the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs passed a resolution warning that the Russian government was using "pseudo-news agencies" and Internet trolls as disinformation propaganda to weaken confidence in democratic values.

In 2015, the Swedish Security Service, Sweden's national security agency, issued a report concluding Russia was using fake news to inflame "splits in society" through the proliferation of propaganda. Sweden's Ministry of Defence tasked its Civil Contingencies Agency with combating fake news from Russia. Fraudulent news affected politics in Indonesia and the Philippines, where there was simultaneously widespread usage of social media and limited resources to check the veracity of political claims. German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned of the societal impact of "fake sites, bots, trolls".

Fraudulent articles spread through social media during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and several officials within the U.S. Intelligence Community said that Russia was engaged in spreading fake news. Computer security company FireEye concluded that Russia used social media to spread fake news stories as part of a cyberwarfare campaign. Google and Facebook banned fake sites from using online advertising. Facebook launched a partnership with fact-checking websites to flag fraudulent news and hoaxes; debunking organizations that joined the initiative included: Snopes.com, FactCheck.org, and PolitiFact. U.S. President Barack Obama said a disregard for facts created a "dust cloud of nonsense". Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) Alex Younger called fake news propaganda online dangerous for democratic nations.

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