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Fake news

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Fake news refers to inaccurate or outright false information that is presented as if it were true news. This term came into popular usage in 2017, and is often used for political or financial gains. Fake news is not limited to but can include things like hoaxes, alternative facts, and misinformation. Satirical sites sometimes label themselves as fake news, but it can also be found on news aggregators or political sites. The spread of fake news can undermine trust in legitimate news sources and distort the public’s understanding of important issues. Efforts to combat fake news may involve self-regulation, legal regulation, individual action, and the use of technology[4] such as artificial intelligence[1]. Recognizing fake news involves looking for signs like clickbait, propaganda, and media bias[5], and people can use tools like fact-checking[3] websites and media literacy[2] programs to help differentiate between real and fake news.

Terms definitions
1. artificial intelligence.
1 Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the field of computer science that aims to create systems capable of performing tasks that would normally require human intelligence. These tasks include reasoning, learning, planning, perception, and language understanding. AI draws from different fields including psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and neuroscience. The field is prominent in developing machine learning models and natural language processing systems. It also plays a significant role in creating virtual assistants and affective computing systems. AI applications extend across various sectors including healthcare, industry, government, and education. Despite its benefits, AI also raises ethical and societal concerns, necessitating regulatory policies. AI continues to evolve with advanced techniques such as deep learning and generative AI, offering new possibilities in various industries.
2 Artificial Intelligence, commonly known as AI, is a field of computer science dedicated to creating intelligent machines that perform tasks typically requiring human intellect. These tasks include problem-solving, recognizing speech, understanding natural language, and making decisions. AI is categorised into two types: narrow AI, which is designed to perform a specific task, like voice recognition, and general AI, which can perform any intellectual tasks a human being can do. It's a continuously evolving technology that draws from various fields including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience. The core concepts of AI include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, natural language processing, and perception. AI has wide-ranging applications across numerous sectors, from healthcare and gaming to military and creativity, and its ethical considerations and challenges are pivotal to its development and implementation.
2. media literacy. Media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media in all its forms. It involves understanding the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy. Media literacy education, provided by organizations like UNESCO, UNITWIN Cooperation Programme, UNAOC, and GAPMIL, aims to equip individuals with tools and skills to critically analyze different types of media and messages. It has a profound impact on individuals, raising awareness about manipulation, propaganda, and bias in media, while empowering citizens to contribute to public discourse and make informed decisions. The field is constantly evolving, incorporating elements of social networks, big data, and artificial intelligence. It is now a global movement with varying degrees of integration into the education systems of different regions.
Fake news (Wikipedia)

Fake news or information disorder is false or misleading information (misinformation, including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes) presented as news. Fake news often has the aim of damaging the reputation of a person or entity, or making money through advertising revenue. Although false news has always been spread throughout history, the term fake news was first used in the 1890s when sensational reports in newspapers were common. Nevertheless, the term does not have a fixed definition and has been applied broadly to any type of false information presented as news. It has also been used by high-profile people to apply to any news unfavorable to them. Further, disinformation involves spreading false information with harmful intent and is sometimes generated and propagated by hostile foreign actors, particularly during elections. In some definitions, fake news includes satirical articles misinterpreted as genuine, and articles that employ sensationalist or clickbait headlines that are not supported in the text. Because of this diversity of types of false news, researchers are beginning to favour information disorder as a more neutral and informative term.

Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".
Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper

The prevalence of fake news has increased with the recent rise of social media, especially the Facebook News Feed, and this misinformation is gradually seeping into the mainstream media. Several factors have been implicated in the spread of fake news, such as political polarization, post-truth politics, motivated reasoning, confirmation bias, and social media algorithms.

Fake news can reduce the impact of real news by competing with it. For example, a BuzzFeed News analysis found that the top fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than top stories from major media outlets. It also particularly has the potential to undermine trust in serious media coverage. The term has at times been used to cast doubt upon credible news, and former U.S. president Donald Trump has been credited with popularizing the term by using it to describe any negative press coverage of himself. It has been increasingly criticized, due in part to Trump's misuse, with the British government deciding to avoid the term, as it is "poorly-defined" and "conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference".

Multiple strategies for fighting fake news are currently being actively researched, for various types of fake news. Politicians in certain autocratic and democratic countries have demanded effective self-regulation and legally-enforced regulation in varying forms, of social media and web search engines.

On an individual scale, the ability to actively confront false narratives, as well as taking care when sharing information can reduce the prevalence of falsified information. However, it has been noted that this is vulnerable to the effects of confirmation bias, motivated reasoning and other cognitive biases that can seriously distort reasoning, particularly in dysfunctional and polarised societies. Inoculation theory has been proposed as a method to render individuals resistant to undesirable narratives. Because new misinformation pops up all the time, it is much better timewise to inoculate the population against accepting fake news in general (a process termed prebunking), instead of continually debunking the same repeated lies.

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