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Internet Protocol

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The Internet[2] Protocol (IP) is a principal technology[1] that drives the internet. It’s a set of rules that govern data transmission across a network. IP is responsible for addressing host interfaces, encapsulating data into packets called ‘datagrams’, and routing these datagrams across networks. It uses a specific packet format and addressing system. An integral part of its function is to source and destination IP addresses. The IP has seen multiple versions, including IPv4 and IPv6, with the latter introducing larger 128-bit addresses. The IP aims to provide ‘best-effort delivery’, despite being characterized as unreliable due to network infrastructure. It also plays a role in managing link capacity and data transmission, including the size of data packets. Over the years, security[3] and development have become significant aspects of IP, with continuous efforts to address vulnerabilities and propose advancements.

Terms definitions
1. technology. Technology, derived from the Greek words meaning craft and knowledge, is a broad term that refers to the tools, machines, and systems developed by humans to solve problems or fulfill objectives. Originating with primitive tools like stone axes and the discovery of fire, technology has evolved significantly throughout human history. It has been instrumental in different eras, from the invention of the wheel and advanced irrigation systems in ancient civilizations to the birth of universities and printing press during the medieval and Renaissance periods. The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century marked a significant shift in mass production and innovation, giving rise to modern technologies like electricity, automobiles, and digital communication platforms. Today, technology is integral to various aspects of life and society, driving economic growth and societal change, while also raising concerns about security, privacy, and environmental impacts. The future of technology is expected to bring even more advancements, with the rise of artificial intelligence predicted to have significant implications for the job market.
2. Internet ( Internet ) The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use standardized communication protocols, primarily the TCP/IP, to link devices worldwide. Originating from the term 'internetted' used in 1849, the term 'Internet' was later used by the US War Department in 1945. Its development began with computer scientists creating time-sharing systems in the 1960s and further progressed with the establishment of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet is self-governed, without a central authority, and its principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). It has significantly transformed traditional communication media and has grown exponentially over the years, with internet users increasing 20% to 50% annually. In 2019, over half of the world population used the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, which includes TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, guides internet packets to their destinations. Essential services like email and Internet telephony operate on the Internet. The World Wide Web, a global collection of interconnected documents, is a key component of the Internet.
Internet Protocol (Wikipedia)

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, which was complemented by a connection-oriented service that became the basis for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor is Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), which has been in increasing deployment on the public Internet since around 2006.

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