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Interoperability, in the realm of technology[1] and systems, is the capability of different systems or products to work together and exchange information seamlessly. It comprises various types such as syntactic interoperability, which ensures common data formats and protocols, and semantic interoperability, allowing meaningful data interpretation. Cross-domain interoperability facilitates data exchange across multiple entities. Interoperability standards aid in the creation of products that can cooperate effortlessly. Post facto interoperability is significant in competitive landscapes where dominant products set market standards. Challenges include data encumbrance and lack of open standards, but solutions lie in improving infrastructure interoperability and promoting open standards. Industry-specific interoperability, like in NATO forces or eGovernment services, is crucial for effective collaboration and efficient service delivery.

Terms definitions
1. technology. Technology, derived from the Greek words meaning craft and knowledge, is a broad term that refers to the tools, machines, and systems developed by humans to solve problems or fulfill objectives. Originating with primitive tools like stone axes and the discovery of fire, technology has evolved significantly throughout human history. It has been instrumental in different eras, from the invention of the wheel and advanced irrigation systems in ancient civilizations to the birth of universities and printing press during the medieval and Renaissance periods. The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century marked a significant shift in mass production and innovation, giving rise to modern technologies like electricity, automobiles, and digital communication platforms. Today, technology is integral to various aspects of life and society, driving economic growth and societal change, while also raising concerns about security, privacy, and environmental impacts. The future of technology is expected to bring even more advancements, with the rise of artificial intelligence predicted to have significant implications for the job market.
Interoperability (Wikipedia)

Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system to work with other products or systems. While the term was initially defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system-to-system performance.

An example of software interoperability: a mobile device and a TV device both playing the same digital music file that is stored on a server off-screen in the home network

Types of interoperability include syntactic interoperability, where two systems can communicate with each other, and cross-domain interoperability, where multiple organizations work together and exchange information.

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