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Link farm

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A Link Farm[3] represents a cluster of websites that all interlink with one another with the primary goal of improving their Search Engine Optimization[1] (SEO) ranking. Originating in 1999 by SEOs, these farms were created to exploit the use of search engine[2] algorithms, specifically the Inktomi search engine that used link popularity as a ranking method. Link farms not only helped stabilize listings for online businesses with few natural links, but they were also manipulated by unscrupulous webmasters to increase Google[5]’s PageRank[6]. However, link farms are often viewed by search engines as a form of spamdexing[4], and can be filtered out during the ranking process. Despite this, they continue to be used in various forms, such as Private Blog[7] Networks (PBNs), which are groups of blogs owned by the same entity aiming to promote external sites and boost search engine rankings.

Terms definitions
1. Search engine optimization ( Search Engine Optimization ) Search engine optimization, commonly referred to as SEO, is a critical digital marketing strategy. Originating in the mid-90s, SEO involves enhancing websites to achieve higher rankings on search engine results pages. This process is essential for increasing web traffic and converting visitors into customers. SEO employs various techniques, including page design, keyword optimization, and content updates, to enhance a website's visibility. It also involves the use of tools for monitoring and adapting to search engine updates. SEO practices range from ethical 'white hat' methods to the disapproved 'black hat' techniques, with 'grey hat' straddling both. While SEO isn't suitable for all websites, its effectiveness in internet marketing campaigns cannot be underestimated. Recent industry trends such as mobile web usage surpassing desktop usage highlight the evolving landscape of SEO.
2. search engine. A search engine is a vital tool that functions as part of a distributed computing system. It's a software system that responds to user queries by providing a list of hyperlinks, summaries, and images. It utilizes a complex indexing system, which is continuously updated by web crawlers that mine data from web servers. Some content, however, remains inaccessible to these crawlers. The speed and efficiency of a search engine are highly dependent on its indexing system. Users interact with search engines via a web browser or app, inputting queries and receiving suggestions as they type. The results may be filtered to specific types, and the system can be accessed on various devices. This tool is significant as it allows users to navigate the vast web, find relevant content, and efficiently retrieve information.
Link farm (Wikipedia)

On the World Wide Web, a link farm is any group of websites that all hyperlink to other sites in the group for the purpose of increasing SEO rankings. In graph theoretic terms, a link farm is a clique. Although some link farms can be created by hand, most are created through automated programs and services. A link farm is a form of spamming the index of a web search engine (sometimes called spamdexing). Other link exchange systems are designed to allow individual websites to selectively exchange links with other relevant websites, and are not considered a form of spamdexing.

A diagram of a link farm. Each circle represents a website, and each arrow represents a pair of hyperlinks between two websites.

Search engines require ways to confirm page relevancy. A known method is to examine for one-way links coming directly from relevant websites. The process of building links should not be confused with being listed on link farms, as the latter requires reciprocal return links, which often renders the overall backlink advantage useless. This is due to oscillation, causing confusion over which is the vendor site and which is the promoting site.

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