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Plataforma fechada

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A closed platform, in the context of telecommunications and digital services, is a system where the service provider retains control over applications, content, and media, and restricts access to non-approved applications or content. This concept is often applied to mobile operators, such as the 1970s American telephone system, Bell, that had control over hardware and information. The term ‘walled garden’ is commonly used to describe such closed information services, with companies like AOL and Amazon successfully implementing this model. Such platforms often involve issues of data portability, vendor lock-in, digital rights management and registered user restrictions. Contrasting with open source[1] platforms, closed platforms often draw comparisons with business ecosystems, gated communities, the dark web, and defective by design systems. The implications of these platforms are extensively discussed in various tech publications, research papers, and books.

Definições de termos
1. open source. Open source refers to a type of software whose source code is released under a license granting anyone permission to view, modify, and distribute the software. This concept traces its roots back to the early 20th century with the sharing of technical information among automobile manufacturers. However, it was not until the late 1990s that the term 'open source' was coined. The economic value of open source lies in its low reproduction costs and the potential for community contributions to improve the original design. It operates on a model of decentralized development and universal access, encouraging collaboration and peer production. Open source principles are applied in various fields, from software development to biotechnology research, reflecting its influence on social and political perspectives.
Plataforma fechada (Wikipédia)

A closed platform, walled garden, or closed ecosystem é um software system wherein the carrier or service provider has control over applications, content, and/or meios de comunicação, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applicants or content. This is in contrast to an open platform, wherein consumers generally have unrestricted access to applications and content.

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