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Connectivism is a learning theory that was first introduced by George Siemens in 2004 and further developed by Siemens and Stephen Downes in 2005. This theory emphasizes the use of networks as a metaphor for learning, with the network consisting of nodes and connections. In the context of connectivism, learning is perceived as the process of creating and strengthening connections within this network. The theory also encompasses various teaching methods, including experiential learning, and has been the subject of debates and discussions in the field of education. Despite criticism questioning its originality, connectivism continues to influence the development of new pedagogies and is often explored in relation to other learning theories such as constructivism and social learning theory.

Conectivismo (Wikipédia)

Conectivismo is a theoretical framework for understanding learning in a digital age. It emphasizes how internet technologies such as web browsers, search engines, wikis, online discussion forums, and social networks contributed to new avenues of learning. Technologies have enabled people to learn and share information across the World Wide Web and among themselves in ways that were not possible before the digital age. Learning does not simply happen within an individual, but within and across the networks.

What sets connectivism apart from theories such as constructivism is the view that "learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing". Connectivism sees knowledge as a network and learning as a process of pattern recognition. Connectivism has similarities with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development (ZPD) and Engeström's activity theory. The phrase "a learning theory for the digital age" indicates the emphasis that connectivism gives to technology's effect on how people live, communicate, and learn. Connectivism is an integration of principles related to chaos, network, complexity, and self-organization theories.

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