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Organização de consumidores

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A consumer[2] organization, the primary entity discussed in this text, is a type of institution that advocates for the rights and interests of consumers. They first appeared in the United States around the year 1900, taking inspiration from trade unions and trade associations. As part of their mission, these organizations work towards reducing industry waste and improving market conditions. They exist in various countries, including Singapore, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, each offering unique services and protection to consumers. In an effort to inform and educate the public, consumer organizations often publish magazines and reports detailing product testing results. Their key role in consumer protection[1] involves advocating for transparency in the market and lobbying[3] for laws to prevent unfair practices. These organizations draw upon multiple resources such as books, reports, and websites to enhance consumer knowledge and identify key players influencing consumer issues.

Definições de termos
1. consumer protection. Consumer protection refers to the practice of safeguarding buyers from unfair and fraudulent business activities. It is embodied in laws and regulations established in many countries including, but not limited to, Australia, Brazil, Germany, India, Nigeria, Taiwan, the UK, and the US. These laws aim to ensure that consumers receive accurate information about products and services, and are not subjected to deceptive trade practices. Enforcement of consumer protection laws is carried out by specific agencies such as the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Consumer rights organizations also play an essential role in consumer protection by educating consumers and assisting in dispute resolution. International laws and trade regulations often influence consumer protection laws. Additionally, various mechanisms like cooling-off periods and consumer dispute forums help address consumer complaints promptly. Specific consumer protection measures, such as the FTC Cooling-Off Rule, address issues related to consumer contracts and understanding.
2. consumer. A consumer, in simple terms, is an individual who purchases goods or services for their personal use and not for resale or commercial purposes. They play a significant role in the economy as their demand for products motivates manufacturers to produce. This dynamic influences production, distribution, and consumption processes. Consumers also have certain rights, established by President John F. Kennedy, that include safety, information, choice, redressal, and representation. These rights protect them from hazardous goods and unfair practices. In today's digital age, consumers are evolving into 'prosumers', actively participating in product creation. Consumer behavior, therefore, has a profound impact on marketing strategies, leading to personalized marketing and mass customization.

Consumer organizations are advocacy groups that seek to protect people from corporate abuse like unsafe products, predatory lending, false advertising, astroturfing e pollution.

Consumer Organizations may operate via protests, litigation, campaigning, or lobbying. They may engage in single-issue advocacy (e.g., the British Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA), which campaigned against keg beer and for cask ale) or they may set themselves up as more general consumer watchdogs, such as the Consumers' Association in the UK.

One common means of providing consumers useful information is the independent comparative survey or test of products or services, involving different manufacturers or companies (e.g., Which?, Consumer Reports, etc.).

Another arena where consumer organizations have operated is food safety. The needs for campaigning in this area are less easy to reconcile with their traditional methods, since the scientific, dietary or medical evidence is normally more complex than in other arenas, such as the electric safety of white goods. The current standards on mandatory labelling, in developed countries, have in part been shaped by past lobbying by consumer groups.

The aim of consumer organizations may be to establish and to attempt to enforce consumer rights. Effective work has also been done, however, simply by using the threat of bad publicity to keep companies' focus on the consumers' point of view.

Consumer organizations may attempt to serve consumer interests by relatively direct actions such as creating and/or disseminating market information, and prohibiting specific acts or practices, or by promoting competitive forces in the markets which directly or indirectly affect consumers (such as transport, electricity, communications, etc.).

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