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Execução (computação)

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In the realm of computing, the term “execution” refers to the process by which a computador[2] carries out instructions. This process begins with the creation of programs in source code, which is then compiled into an executable file. This file is loaded into the computer’s memory by the operating system and then run from its entry point until it either terminates normally or crashes. The execution process takes place in a specific context, often within multitasking operating systems, and utilizes resources such as run-time libraries. During execution, the computer follows the fetch-decode-execute cycle, and different programming languages manage potential errors in unique ways. Execution also involves a runtime system that provides an environment for the program to operate in and manages application memory and variable access. Some execution processes may involve interpreters, which execute programs directly without translation[1], or virtual machines, which emulate the functions of a physical computer.

Definições de termos
1. translation. Translation is a critical linguistic practice that involves converting text or speech from one language to another while maintaining the original meaning, style, and intent. Originating from Latin, its theories have evolved across centuries from ancient metaphrase and paraphrase concepts to modern computer-assisted methods. It plays a vital role in global communication, cultural exchange, and knowledge preservation. The practice has unique traditions and challenges across Western, Near East, and Asian regions. It requires high proficiency in languages and subject matter expertise, akin to the skills of a musician or actor in their respective fields. The field of translation has seen significant historical developments, from ancient civilizations to modern automation efforts, underscoring the importance of translators in society.
2. computador. Um computador é um dispositivo sofisticado que manipula dados ou informações de acordo com um conjunto de instruções, conhecidas como programas. Por conceção, os computadores podem executar uma vasta gama de tarefas, desde simples cálculos aritméticos até ao processamento e análise de dados complexos. Os computadores evoluíram ao longo dos anos, desde as primitivas ferramentas de contagem, como o ábaco, até às modernas máquinas digitais. O coração de um computador é a sua unidade central de processamento (CPU), que inclui uma unidade lógica aritmética (ALU) para efetuar operações matemáticas e registos para armazenar dados. Os computadores também têm unidades de memória, como ROM e RAM, para armazenar informação. Outros componentes incluem dispositivos de entrada/saída (E/S) que permitem a interação com a máquina e circuitos integrados que melhoram a funcionalidade do computador. As principais inovações históricas, como a invenção do primeiro computador programável por Charles Babbage e o desenvolvimento do primeiro computador eletrónico digital automático, o Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), contribuíram grandemente para a sua evolução. Atualmente, os computadores alimentam a Internet, ligando milhares de milhões de utilizadores em todo o mundo, e tornaram-se uma ferramenta essencial em quase todas as indústrias.

Execution em computador and software engineering is the process by which a computador ou virtual machine interpret and acts on the instructions of a computer program. Each instruction of a program is a description of a particular action which must be carried out, in order for a specific problem to be solved. Execution involves repeatedly following a "fetch–decode–execute" cycle for each instruction done by control unit. As the executing machine follows the instructions, specific effects are produced in accordance with the semantics of those instructions.

Programs for a computer may be executed in a batch process without human interaction or a user may type commands in an interactive session of an interpreter. In this case, the "commands" are simply program instructions, whose execution is chained together.

The term run is used almost synonymously. A related meaning of both "to run" and "to execute" refers to the specific action of a user starting (or launching ou invoking) a program, as in "Please run the application."

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