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Verificação de factos

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Fact-checking is a critical process in journalism and information dissemination, used to verify the accuracy of statements, claims, and news. It originated in the 1850s in response to sensationalist newspapers and has evolved significantly since, with key contributors including the Associated Press, Ralph Pulitzer, Henry Luce, and The New Yorker. Fact-checking can be done before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) information is published, with various organizations and media outlets dedicated to the task. It holds significant influence in political discourse[1], deterring politicians from spreading misinformation and impacting public perception and belief in political claims. Fact-checking also extends to informal contexts, where individuals and tecnologia[2] play a role in verifying news and identifying fake news[3]. Despite its effectiveness, fact-checking alone may not fully combat misinformation, necessitating its inclusion in educational curriculums.

Definições de termos
1. discourse. Discourse, the primary subject of this text, is a term used in social sciences to describe formal discussions or debates on a specific topic. It encompasses the language expressions, conversations, and written texts that shape our understanding of societal structures. Discourse is deeply linked to power dynamics and plays a significant role in shaping reality. There are several theoretical frameworks that shed light on discourse, including modernism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and Foucault's discourse theory. Different types of discourse analysis, such as critical, conversation, and Foucauldian discourse analysis, help us understand communication patterns and societal structures. The study of discourse has wide applications across various fields including sociology, environmental policy, and cultural studies, and has profound implications on gendered discourses and societal norms. Renowned scholars like James P. Gee, Robert Stalnaker, and Peter Pagin have contributed significantly to discourse analysis. Discourse research is highly relevant in social sciences and informs our understanding of language, identity, and power structures.
2. tecnologia. A tecnologia, derivada das palavras gregas que significam ofício e conhecimento, é um termo amplo que se refere às ferramentas, máquinas e sistemas desenvolvidos pelo homem para resolver problemas ou cumprir objectivos. Com origem em ferramentas primitivas como os machados de pedra e a descoberta do fogo, a tecnologia evoluiu significativamente ao longo da história da humanidade. Foi fundamental em diferentes épocas, desde a invenção da roda e dos sistemas avançados de irrigação nas civilizações antigas até ao nascimento das universidades e da imprensa durante os períodos medieval e renascentista. A Revolução Industrial, no século XVIII, marcou uma mudança significativa na produção em massa e na inovação, dando origem a tecnologias modernas como a eletricidade, os automóveis e as plataformas de comunicação digital. Hoje em dia, a tecnologia faz parte integrante de vários aspectos da vida e da sociedade, impulsionando o crescimento económico e a mudança social, ao mesmo tempo que suscita preocupações sobre a segurança, a privacidade e os impactos ambientais. Espera-se que o futuro da tecnologia traga ainda mais avanços, prevendo-se que o aumento da inteligência artificial tenha implicações significativas no mercado de trabalho.

Verificação de factos is the process of verifying the factual accuracy of questioned reporting and statements. Fact-checking can be conducted before or after the text or content is published or otherwise disseminated. Internal fact-checking is such checking done in-house by the publisher to prevent inaccurate content from being published; when the text is analyzed by a third party, the process is called external fact-checking.

Research suggests that fact-checking can indeed correct perceptions among citizens, as well as discourage politicians from spreading false or misleading claims. However, corrections may decay over time or be overwhelmed by cues from elites who promote less accurate claims. Political fact-checking is sometimes criticized as being opinion journalism. A review of US politics fact-checkers shows a mixed result of whether fact-checking is an effective way to reduce misconceptions, and whether the method is reliable.

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