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Protocolo de transferência de ficheiros

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File Transfer Protocol, often abbreviated as FTP, is a standard network protocol used for transmitting files over the internet[1]. It was developed by Abhay Bhushan and initially published as RFC114 back in 1971. The protocol establishes a connection between a client and a server, allowing for the transfer of data. It operates in both active and passive modes and corresponds with three-digit status codes. FTP, however, is not inherently secure and has several known vulnerabilities, including susceptibility to brute-force and FTP bounce attacks. Over the years, it has evolved to support IPv6 and extended passive mode. There are also secure alternatives to FTP, such as SFTP and SSH FTP. Users can access FTP servers through various software applications, web browsers, and FTP URLs.

Definições de termos
1. internet. A Internet é um sistema global de redes informáticas interligadas que utilizam protocolos de comunicação normalizados, principalmente o TCP/IP, para ligar dispositivos em todo o mundo. Com origem no termo "internetted" utilizado em 1849, o termo "Internet" foi mais tarde utilizado pelo Departamento de Guerra dos EUA em 1945. O seu desenvolvimento começou com cientistas informáticos que criaram sistemas de partilha de tempo na década de 1960 e progrediu com a criação da ARPANET em 1969. A Internet é autónoma, sem uma autoridade central, e os seus principais espaços de nomes são administrados pela Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Transformou significativamente os meios de comunicação tradicionais e tem crescido exponencialmente ao longo dos anos, com os utilizadores da Internet a aumentarem anualmente de 20% para 50%. Em 2019, mais de metade da população mundial utilizou a Internet. O conjunto de protocolos da Internet, que inclui o TCP/IP e quatro camadas conceptuais, orienta os pacotes da Internet para os seus destinos. Serviços essenciais como o correio eletrónico e a telefonia via Internet funcionam na Internet. A World Wide Web, uma coleção global de documentos interligados, é uma componente essencial da Internet.

O Protocolo de transferência de ficheiros (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a rede informática. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a plain-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).

Protocolo de transferência de ficheiros
Protocolo de comunicação
PurposeFile transfer
Criador(es)Abhay Bhushan for RFC 114
IntroductionApril 16, 1971; 52 years ago (1971-04-16)
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)21 for control, 20 for data transfer
RFC(s)RFC 959

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before sistemas operativos had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unixe Linux operating systems. Many dedicated FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for computadores de secretária, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications such as HTML editors e file managers.

An FTP client used to be commonly integrated in web browsers, where file servers are browsed with the URI prefix "ftp://". In 2021, FTP support was dropped by Google Chrome and Firefox, two major web browser vendors, due to it being superseded by the more secure SFTP and FTPS; although neither of them have implemented the newer protocols.

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