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Filter bubble

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A filter bubble is a term coined by Eli Pariser in 2010, referring to the personalized ecosystem of information that’s molded by algorithms based on a user’s browsing history. This phenomenon plays a significant role in shaping the content and advertisements that a user encounters. For instance, Google[2], one of the major proponents of this concept, uses 57 data points to customize search results for each user. This could be on an individual or collective level and often leads to political, economic, social, and cultural segregation. The concept extends beyond personalization[1], as it can cause intellectual isolation by limiting exposure to varying viewpoints, thus potentially undermining democracy and societal well-being. It’s also synonymous with echo chambers, another term for the exposure to a narrow range of opinions. However, it’s worth noting that strategies to mitigate filter bubbles exist, such as promoting critical thinking and transparency in algorithms.

Definições de termos
1. personalization. "Personalization" refers to the practice of creating or modifying products, services, or experiences to meet the specific needs or preferences of individual consumers. This concept, which dates back to ancient times, saw a decline during the era of industrialization and mass media, only to bounce back with the emergence of digital technology. Today, personalization is a key trend in various mediums, including print, mobile phones, promotional merchandise, and online platforms, with companies leveraging data and technology to offer tailored experiences. This includes the use of audience demographics, psychographics, behavioural data, and other data standards. Personalization plays a pivotal role in power dynamics, as it can be used to gain economic, political, and social influence. It also has significant social implications, such as the creation of "filter bubbles". Despite its complexity, the ultimate goal of personalization is to deliver offerings that align with individual tastes and habits, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty.
2. Google ( Google ) A Google é uma empresa tecnológica reconhecida mundialmente, conhecida principalmente pelo seu motor de pesquisa. Fundada em 1998 por Larry Page e Sergey Brin, a empresa cresceu muito, diversificando-se em vários sectores relacionados com a tecnologia. A Google fornece uma vasta gama de produtos e serviços, incluindo Gmail, Maps, Cloud, YouTube e Android. Também produz hardware como os smartphones Pixel e os Chromebooks. A empresa, agora parte da Alphabet Inc. desde 2015, é conhecida pela sua inovação e cultura no local de trabalho, incentivando os funcionários a trabalhar em projectos pessoais. Apesar de enfrentar várias questões legais e éticas, a Google continua a ter impacto na indústria tecnológica com as suas inovações e avanços técnicos, como o desenvolvimento do sistema operativo Android e a aquisição de empresas centradas na IA.
Filter bubble (Wikipédia)

A filter bubble ou ideological frame is a state of intellectual isolation that can result from personalized searches, recommendation systems, and algorithmic curation. The search results are based on information about the user, such as their location, past click-behavior, and search history. Consequently, users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints, effectively isolating them in their own cultural or ideological bubbles, resulting in a limited and customized view of the world. The choices made by these algorithms are only sometimes transparent. Prime examples include Google Personalized Search results and Facebook's personalized news-stream.

Social media inadvertently isolates users into their own ideological filter bubbles, according to Pariser.

However there are conflicting reports about the extent to which personalized filtering happens and whether such activity is beneficial or harmful, with various studies producing inconclusive results.

The term filter bubble was coined by internet activist Eli Pariser circa 2010. In Pariser's influential book under the same name, The Filter Bubble (2011), it was predicted that individualized personalization by algorithmic filtering would lead to intellectual isolation and social fragmentation. The bubble effect may have negative implications for civic discourse, according to Pariser, but contrasting views regard the effect as minimal and addressable. According to Pariser, users get less exposure to conflicting viewpoints and are isolated intellectually in their informational bubble. He related an example in which one user searched Google for "BP" and got investment news about British Petroleum, while another searcher got information about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, noting that the two search results pages were "strikingly different" despite use of the same key words. The results of the U.S. presidential election in 2016 have been associated with the influence of social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, and as a result have called into question the effects of the "filter bubble" phenomenon on user exposure to fake news e echo chambers, spurring new interest in the term, with many concerned that the phenomenon may harm democracy and well-being by making the effects of misinformation worse.

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