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Java (linguagem de programação)

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Java is a high-level programming language first initiated in 1991 by James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton. It was originally designed for interactive televisão[1] but was later repurposed and released by Sun Microsystems as Java 1.0 in 1996. The language’s primary goals are simplicity, object-orientation, and familiarity. It places a strong emphasis on robustness, security[2], architecture-neutrality, and portability. Java is known for its “write once, run anywhere” capability, meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but its object model is simpler and has fewer low-level facilities. Java is also noted for its well-designed, comprehensive libraries, its consistent cross-platform behavior, and its longevity in the industry.

Definições de termos
1. televisão. A televisão é uma tecnologia que transmite imagens visuais e sonoras. O termo vem do grego antigo e do latim, significando "visão distante". Utilizado pela primeira vez em 1900 por Constantin Perskyi, era conhecido como "telephote" e "televista" nas primeiras propostas. A televisão evoluiu a partir da digitalização mecânica de imagens, tendo o disco de Nipkow, patenteado em 1884, desempenhado um papel crucial. Inicialmente, os sinais de televisão eram transmitidos através de radiodifusão terrestre, mas atualmente incluem o cabo coaxial, a fibra ótica, os sistemas de satélite e a Internet. Os aparelhos de televisão têm circuitos electrónicos internos, incluindo um sintonizador para receber os sinais. Sem um sintonizador, trata-se de um monitor de vídeo. A radiodifusão a cores foi introduzida em meados da década de 1960 e, atualmente, existem televisores inteligentes com ligação à Internet. Atualmente, 79% dos lares em todo o mundo possuem um televisor e os principais fabricantes produzem televisores inteligentes.
2. security. Security, as a term, originates from the Latin 'securus,' meaning free from worry. It is a concept that refers to the state of being protected from potential harm or threats. This protection can apply to a wide range of referents, including individuals, groups, institutions, or even ecosystems. Security is closely linked with the environment of the referent and can be influenced by different factors that can make it either beneficial or hostile. Various methods can be employed to ensure security, including protective and warning systems, diplomacy, and policy implementation. The effectiveness of these security measures can vary, and perceptions of security can differ widely. Important security concepts include access control, assurance, authorization, cipher, and countermeasures. The United Nations also plays a significant role in global security, focusing on areas like soil health and food security.

Java é um high-level, class-based, object-oriented linguagem de programação that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let programmers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need to recompile. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. O syntax of Java is similar to C e C++, but has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. The Java runtime provides dynamic capabilities (such as reflection and runtime code modification) that are typically not available in traditional compiled languages.

Java
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), functional, imperative, reflective, concurrent
Concebido porJames Gosling
ProgramadorOracle Corporation
Apareceu pela primeira vezMay 23, 1995; 28 years ago (1995-05-23)
Disciplina de dactilografiaStatic, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
Memory managementAutomatic garbage collection
Filename extensions.java, .class, .jar, .jmod
Sítio Web
Influenciado por
CLU, Simula67, Lisp, Smalltalk, Ada 83, C++, C#, Eiffel, Mesa, Modula-3, Oberon, Objective-C, UCSD Pascal, Object Pascal
Influenced
Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Chapel, Clojure, ECMAScript, Fantom, Gambas, Groovy, Hack, Haxe, J#, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala, JavaScript, JS++, ArkTS

Java gained popularity shortly after its release, and has been a very popular programming language since then. Java was the third most popular programming language in 2022 according to GitHub. Although still widely popular, there has been a gradual decline in use of Java in recent years with other languages using JVM gaining popularity.

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems. It was released in May 1995 as a core component of Sun's Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GPL-2.0-only license. Oracle offers its own HotSpot Java Virtual Machine, however the official reference implementation is the OpenJDK JVM which is free open-source software and used by most developers and is the default JVM for almost all Linux distributions.

As of March 2024, Java 22 is the latest version. Java 8, 11, 17, and 21 are previous LTS versions still officially supported.

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