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Translation is a critical linguistic practice that involves converting text or speech from one language to another while maintaining the original meaning, style, and intent. Originating from Latin, its theories have evolved across centuries from ancient metaphrase and paraphrase concepts to modern computer-assisted methods. It plays a vital role in global communication, cultural exchange, and knowledge preservation. The practice has unique traditions and challenges across Western, Near East, and Asian regions. It requires high proficiency in languages and subject matter expertise, akin to the skills of a musician or actor in their respective fields. The field of translation has seen significant historical developments, from ancient civilizations to modern automation efforts, underscoring the importance of translators in society.

Translation (Wikipédia)

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or signed communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community.

King Charles V the Wise commissions a translation of Aristotle. First square shows his ordering the translation; second square, the translation being made. Third and fourth squares show the finished translation being brought to, and then presented to, the King.

A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques e loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.

Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More recently, the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localisation".

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